Abstractbok

Inger.erixon.arreman@umu.se
Inger Erixon Arreman

Reforms for evidence-based education in Sweden – academisation of teachers or teachers as transmitters of market-oriented policies?

CoAuthors

Kristina Hansson, Ulrika Bergmark

English

Abstract Summery

Within the EU and the OECD, teachers’ professional development and evidence-based knowledge is promoted in education policies in order to increase the quality of the education system (Alexiadou, 2014; OECD, 2018). In Sweden, dramatic decrease of pupil performance (Wiberg & Rolfsman 2013), coupled to the market-oriented education polices (Skolverket, 2012; Lundahl et al., 2013; Hansson, 2014) have placed the teacher profession under great pressure (Swedish Government, 2009). Current reforms to support teachers’ professionalism include new career paths, national certification and programmes for in-service training, along with a new Education Act (SFS 2010:800) that states that all education should be evidence-based. The aims of this study concerns how to understand and problematize challenges and dilemmas related to policies on teacher professionalism and evidence-based education.

Research questions:
•     What is the problem? Why the policy emphasis on evidence-based education and academisation of teachers?
•     What academic attitudes and knowledges are expected? 
•     In what ways are teachers expected to teach in line with evidence-based knowledge?
•     How are teachers positioned? For the study, we analyse official policy documents at national and local policy levels. The analysis draw on Dean’s (2010) four dimensions of governmentality.

Preliminary conclusions: 
Policies supposed to solve the problem with decreased quality in Swedish education are enacted in reforms directed to the teaching force, with the aims to transform education along rational and linear views on evidence-based knowledge. Policies assign multiple and contradictive subject positions of teachers; teachers are assigned the role of problem solver related to negative outcomes of market-oriented policies, parallel to suggested lack of professionalism and knowledge. Policies move along a continuum between mistrust- and trust rationalities.

References
Alexiadou, N. (2014). Policy learning and Europeanisation in education. In Eds. A. Nordin & D. Sundberg. Transnational policy flows in European education: The making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field, 123-140.Dean, M. (2010). Governmentality. Power and rule in modern society. London: Sage.Education Act (SFS 2010:800). Swedish government.Hansson, K. (2014). Skola och medier. Aktiviteter och styrning i en kommuns utvecklingssträvanden. Umeå: Umeå University.Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A. S., & Lundström, U. (2013). Educational marketization the Swedish way. Education Inquiry, 4(3), 497-517.OECD (2018). Teaching in Focus. http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/teachinginfocus.htm   Paris: OECD. Skolverket (2012) Mapping the School Market. Stockholm: Skolverket.Swedish Government (2009). En kår i kläm. Läraryrket mellan professionella ideal och statliga reformideologier. Stockholm: Ministry of Finance.Wiberg, M., & Rolfsman, E. (2013). School effectiveness in science in Sweden and Norway viewed from a TIMSS perspective. Utbildning och Demokrati, 22(3), 69-84


jro@du.se
Jenny Rosén

Flerspråkighet som resurs inom SFI-utbildningen. Lärares kollektiva utvecklingsarbete.

CoAuthors

Berit Lundgren, bld@du.se

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Syftet med den studie som presenteras här är att synliggöra lärares individuella och kollektiva lärande i arbetet med flerspråkighet som resurs inom svenska för invandrare (sfi). Fokus riktas särskilt mot auskultationer som en möjlig resurs för lärande i ett kollaborativt forskningsprojekt. Tidigare forskning om såväl undervisning som lärarrollen inom sfi är begränsad (se t.ex. Colliander 2019; Lundgren & Rosén 2017). Denna studie tar sin utgångspunkt i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande av ett andraspråk (Lantolf & Pavlenko 1995) och ett kritiskt perspektiv där språkliga normer och hierarkier i relation till social rättvisa uppmärksammas (Norton 2013; García 2017).Studien är en del av ett treårigt FoU-program (2018-2020) vars mål är att utveckla sfi-undervisningen i samarbete med lärare och skolledare i sju sfi-verksamheter. Inom programmet genomför lärarna auskultationer med fokus på elevers och lärares användning av olika språkliga resurser och dokumenterade detta genom ett observationsschema. Studiens empiriska material utgörs av inspelade samtal (ca 30 timmar) om observationerna. Samtalen genomfördes i mindre grupper med lärarna och en av forskarna.Resultatet synliggör hur lärarnas förhållningssätt gentemot att använda flerspråkighet som resurs i undervisningen varierade, särskilt beroende på om detta inkluderas som en del av deras didaktiska planering eller om användningen av elevernas olika språk betraktades som ett mål. Analysen visade också hur lärarna i samtalen förhandlar om och utvecklar ett professionellt yrkesspråk för att tala om sin undervisning. Därmed kan auskultationerna utgöra en potentiell medierande resurs både för lärares individuella och kollektiva lärande i samarbete med forskarna. Detta blir särskilt betydelsefullt i ett sfi-sammanhang där lärares utbildnings- och yrkeserfarenheter är varierande och sällan inriktad mot undervisning av vuxna.Keywords: sfi-undervisning, auskultationer, kollegialt och kollektivt lärande

References
Colliander, H. (2019). Being transformed and transforming oneself in a time of change: A study of teacher identity in second language education for adults, Studies in the Education of Adults, DOI: 10.1080/02660830.2018.1526447García, Ofelia (2017). Problematizing linguistic integration of migrants: The role of translanguaging and language teachers. I: Beacco, J.-C. Krumm, H.-J., Little, D., & Thagott, P. (red.) The Linguistic integration of adult migrants/L’intégration linguistique des migrants adultes: Some lessons from research/ Les enseignments de la recherché. Berlin: De Gruyter MoutonLantolf, J., & Pavlenko, A. (1995). Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 15, 108-124. Lundgren, B. & Rosén, J. (2017). 15 års forskning om sfi - en överblick: Förstudie inför ett Ifous FOU-program. Stockholm: Ifous – Academedia.Norton, Bonny (2013). Identity and language learning: Extending the conversation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.


apr@du.se
Anna Henriksson Persson

Demokrati som teori och praktik i grundskolans mellanår

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Det finns i Sverige en tydlig samhällelig ambition att skola och undervisning ska förmedla kunskap om demokratiska värderingar och bedrivas med demokratiska arbetsformer (Skolverket, 2017; SFS 2010:800, § 4). I lärares tal om skolans demokratiuppdrag framträder det som högt värderat och ständigt närvarande i skolvardagen men samtidigt också diffust och outtalat (Henriksson Persson, 2018). Det finns exempel på internationell forskning som beskriver hur demokratibegreppets innebörd tas för given och att det i skolsammanhang ofta finns ett antagande om att skolans aktörer delar en gemensam förståelse. En förståelse som tenderar att ta form som mångtydig och diffus samt harmonierande med ett försvar för värden som kan rymma det mesta (Feu et. al., 2017, s. 648).Utifrån resultatet av en tidigare genomförd licentiatuppsats har jag identifierat några särskilda spänningar knutna till demokratiuppdraget som jag finner angeläget att undersöka närmare. Jag har valt att rikta fokus på det som i lärares tal om och gestaltande av demokratiuppdraget framstår som spänningar mellan olika värden, som är svåra att förena eller se som kompatibla med varandra. Sådana komplexa värdeambitioner handlar till exempel om undervisningssituationer och planerad undervisning där lärare kan behöva förhålla sig till motstridiga ambitioner, krav och skyldigheter utifrån hänsyn till olika värden. Syftet är att bidra med fördjupad kunskap om några av demokratiuppdragets centrala inneboende spänningar. Jag avser att sammanföra tre, från empiriskt material, identifierade spänningar med demokratiteoretiska kunskapsbidrag och tidigare forskning. En utgångspunkt för denna påbörjade studie är en förståelse av undervisning och skola som en komplex verksamhet (Frelin, 2013; Grannäs, 2011; Dahlstedt & Olson, 2013 ) där planerade undervisningsarrangemang och aktiviteter möter en kontext av olika situationsbundna villkor.

References
Dahlstedt, M. & Olson, M. (2013). Utbildning, demokrati, medborgarskap. Malmö: Gleerups.Feu, J., Serra, C., Canimas, J., Làzaro, L., & Simó Gil, N. (2017). Democracy and education: a theoretical proposal for the analysis of democratic practices in schools. Studies in philosophy and education, 36 (6), 647-661. DOI:10.1007/s11217-017-9570-7Frelin, A. (2013). Att hantera läraryrkets komplexitet(er) – en grund för professionalitet. Utbildning & Demokrati: Tidskrift för didaktik och utbildningspolitik, 22 (1), 7 27.Grannäs, J. (2011). Framtidens demokratiska medborgare: Om ungdomar, medborgarskap och demokratifostran i svensk skola. Uppsala: Uppsala University Library.Henriksson Persson, A. (2018). Demokratiuppdrag och demokratiska arbetsformer i grundskolans mellanår: en demokratididaktisk studie med fokus på SO-undervisning. Licentiatuppsats, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet.Skolverket. (2018). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011, Lgr11 (Rev. uppl.). Stockholm: Skolverket.SFS 2010:800. Svensk författningssamling, 2010:800 Skollag. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet.


stina.westerlund@umu.se
Stina Westerlund

The Role of Scientific Based Knowledge in Career Teachers’ Strivings for Development

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Academisation and professionalisation of teachers work follows movements that are globally spread. In Sweden research-based education has further been stressed since changes in School Act stated that all education should rest on scientific knowledge and proven experience (SFS 2010:800). Thereafter a teacher career reform and the new position career teacher, förstelärare, was introduced to promote teachers’ professionalism and to develop teaching and support students learning to overcome declining knowledge results in international tests (Gov. bill 2012/13:136). Overall, this gives a new situation with new pressures for education for 6 to 20 year olds. Earlier research shows tensions between a teacher professionalism constructed by teachers themselves from inside or driven by political origin from outside (Evetts 2009, Englund & Solbrekke 2015). The study is part of an ongoing R&D project with objective to support and explore meetings between policy and teaching practice in a municipality. Focus of this presentation is to examine how career teachers relate to scientific ground and proven experience in their assignments and strives to develop teaching. Study is based on twenty qualitative interviews with career teachers. Overall theoretical framework is policy enactment (Ball et al 2012) that highlights how policy is made in practice in combination with an activity theoretical understanding of meaning making at different levels in an activity (Engeström 2009). Preliminary results show a wide spread in how teachers relate to scientific ground in their assignments as career teachers, from not being able to articulate any relations to scientific ground, to take a consumer perspective to scientific knowledge or to be able to be an active part in producing scientific knowledge in cooperation. When it comes to proven experience perceptions surprisingly seems to be somewhat vague.

References
Ball, S., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools. New York: Routledge.Engeström, Y. (2009). The Future of Activity Theory: A Rough Draft. In: A-L. Sannino et al. (Eds.), Learning and Expanding with Activity Theory. Cambridge: University Press.Englund, T. & Solbrekke, T. (2015). Om innebörder i lärarprofessionalism, Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, 3/4, 168-194.Evetts, J. (2009). The management of professionalism: a contemporary paradox. In: S. Gewirtz et al. (Eds.), Changing Teacher Professionalism; international trends, challenges and ways forward. New York: Routledge. Government bill. 2012/13:136 Karriärvägar för lärare i skolväsendet. Swedish School Act. 2010:800. Skollagen.


jorgen.nissen@liu.se
Jörgen Nissen

Global statistics, education and democracy

CoAuthors

Linnéa Stenliden, Eva Reimers

Swedish

Abstract Summery

There are vibrant links between practices of democracy, digital information processing, human communication and education. This have a profound impact and change the way we work, connect and engage in an increasingly globalized world. Processes of modernization and changes in these ‘systems’ often result in a demand on a citizenry that is cognitively better equipped, critical and demanding more participation. Humans will struggle with for example the complex information and digital landscape which have impact on their possibilities to participate fully in economic, social and cultural life (OECD, 2015). This links to the notion of ‘democratic citizenship’ since digital technology nowadays allows democratic participation differently. Democracy is constantly in construction, never finalized, and always threatened. Altogether, this is vital to consider as the quality of democracy has a direct bearing on a nations ability, and thereby also its educational system, to meet these current and future challenges.  This presentation will elaborate on these issues with examples from an ongoing study focusing Visual Analytics’ potential to; strengthen students’ ability to navigate in a society pervaded by data; improve networked communicational practices; and increase possibilities for young people to develop political subjectivity by participating in society as democratic citizens. Drawing on Biesta (2007), we define democratic values and citizenship as signified by freedom, equality, and plurality. Consequently, in order to exercise democratic rights and obligations, it becomes a prerequisite for education to ensure that all students (citizens) become able and are willing to efficiently and critically use digital media within society, to take part in debates and make their voices heard on valid grounds.

References
References Acharjya, D.P., Dehuri, Satchidananda. & Sanyal, Sugata. (red.) (2015). Computational Intelligence for Big Data Analysis, Frontier Advances and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Adeney, K., & Taggart, P. (2015). Introduction: The Future of Democracy. Government and Opposition,?50(3), 325-335. doi:10.1017/gov.2015.12 Biesta, G., (2007). ”Don’t count me in.” Democracy, education and the question of inclusion. In Nordic Educational Research. (Nordisk Pedagogik.) Vol. 27, No 1, pp. 72-76. Biesta, G., (2017). The rediscovery of teaching. London: Routledge. Martinsson, L., & Reimers, E., (2017). Introduction: Making trouble with neoliberalism, education and political subjectivity. In: E. Reimers & L. Martinsson (eds). Education and Political Subjectivities in Neoliberal Times and Places. Emergences of norms and possibilities. pp. 1-13. Lazer, D. M. J., Baum, M. A., Benkler, Y., Berinsky, A. J., Greenhill, K. M., Menczer, F., & Zittrain, J. L. (2018). The science of fake news. Science, 359(6380), 1094.  ?Reimers, E., & Martinsson, L., (2017). Education and Political Subjectivities in Neoliberal Times and Places. Emergences of norms and possibilities. Roser, M., (2018). The short history of global living conditions and why it matters that we know it. In Current Debates in Comparative Politics, Second Edition. Edited by J. Tyler Dickovick and Jonathan Eastwood. January 2018. Oxford University Press. Stenliden, L., (2015). Visual analytics in K 12 education: Emerging dimensions of complexity. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 9(2), 663-671. Stenliden, L., Bodén, U., & Nissen, J., (2019). Students as Producers of Interactive Data Visualizations - Digitally Skilled to Make Their Voices Heard and Take Part in Society. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Wikforss, Å., (2017). Alternativa fakta: om kunskapen och dess fiender. Fri tanke, Lidingö.


tao@du.se
Tarja Alatalo

”Kan man köra en skottkärra med fyrkantigt hjul?"  Texthändelser i teknikundervisning i förskoleklass

CoAuthors

Annie-Maj Johansson

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Tidig språkstimulans som ges i funktionella sammanhang och i en social kontext har visats vara av betydelse för barns läs- och skrivutveckling. Syftet är att utveckla kunskap om läs- och skrivutvecklande undervisning utifrån ett vidgat textbegrepp, i teknikundervisning i en förskoleklass. Fyra tekniklektioner observerades med fokus på läs- och skrivutvecklande innehåll. Det teoretiska ramverket utgörs av Freebody och Lukes (1999) modell som beskriver sociala praktiker som barn behöver gå ut och in i för att utveckla läs- och skrivförmåga. De beskriver dem som praktiker som stödjer kodning, meningsskapande utifrån text, textanvändning samt praktiker som skapar utrymme för kritisk analys. Praktikerna uppfattas i  den här studien som texthändelser. Dessutom analyseras materialet utifrån Libergs (2008) former för läs- och skrivundervisning, dvs. formaliserad, funktionaliserad och balanserad undervisning. En balanserad undervisning genomförs i sammanhang där språkets form, innehåll och funktion är i samspel med varandra. I materialet framträder en bild av att de sammanhang som formas i teknikundervisningen skapar rikligt med möjligheter för elever att medverka i läs- och skrivutvecklande texthändelser. Särskilt medverkar eleverna i praktiker som stödjer skapande och användande av en rad olika texttyper. Däremot framkommer det i huvudsak ingen explicit undervisning om hur texters kommunikativa delar samspelar, utan undervisningen är starkt funktionaliserad. Trots variationen av texthändelser i den här studien, framkommer det att läraren inte är medveten om det språkliga lärande som erbjuds eleverna, utan det är teknikundervisningen som är i fokus. Studien öppnar för en diskussion om förskoleklassens möjligheter att skapa en medveten språkutvecklande undervisning i sammanhang där språkets form, innehåll och funktion är i samspel med varandra, för att stötta elevers läs- och skrivutveckling även inom ämnesområden som teknik.

References
Comber, B. (1997). Literacy, poverty and schooling: working against deficit equations. English in Australia, 119/120, 22–34Dickinson, D. K. & Caswell, L. (2007). Building support for language and early literacy in preschool classroom trough in-service professional development: Effects of the literacy environment enrichment program (LEEP). Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(2), 243–260.Freebody, P., & Luke, A. (1999). Further notes on the Four Resources Model. Reading Online. http:www.readingonline.org/research/lukefreebody.html [2016-10-16]. Gillen, J & Hall, N., (2003). The emergence of early childhood literacy. I N. Hall, J. Larson & J. Marsh (Red.), Handbook of Early Childhood Literacy (s. 1–12). London: Sage.Hagtvet, B. E. (2003). Skriftspråkstimulering i første klasse: faglig innhold og didaktiske angrepsmåter. I K. Klette (Red.) Klasserommets praksisformer etter Reform 97. (s. 173–223). Oslo: Det utdanningsvitenskaplige fakultet. Universitetet i Oslo.Hindman, A. H, Wasik, B. A & Erhart, A. C. (2012). Shared book reading and head start preschoolers’ vocabulary learning: The role of book-related discussion and curricular connections. Early Education and Development 23(4), 451–474. Hofslundsengen, H., Hagtvet Eriksen, B. Gustafsson, J. (2016). Immediate and delayed effects of invented writing intervention in preschool. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29(7) 1473-1495. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9646-8Liberg, C. (2008). Läs- och skrivutveckling och ett utökat läraruppdrag. Hämtad 4 december 2018 från www.ep.liu.se/ecp/032/004/ecp0832004.pdf.Lundberg, I., Larsman, P., & Strid, A. (2012). Development of phonological awareness during the preschool year: The influence of gender and socio-economic status. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25(2), 305–320.Pearson, P. D., Hiebert, E. H. & Kamil, M. L. (2007). Vocabulary assessment: What we know and what we need to learn. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(2), 282


ees@du.se
Elin Eriksson

Natural science teaching in preschool with the help of structured teaching material

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Some aspects of the natural science area have been a part of the Swedish preschool activities for a long time. Natural science has been equated with outdoor space, forest excursions and learning about animals and nature. Inquiry-based teaching occurs less frequently and physics and chemistry have not had any given pronounced place, although these areas have a more prominent role in the preschool curriculum since 2010. Using the help of teaching materials can be a way for educators to meet and take on the new demands from society's to include physics and chemistry in the pedagogical activities. The teaching material Science and technology for all (Naturvetenskap och teknik för alla, NTA), is widely used in schools and now also in preschools. The overall aim of my ongoing research project is to gain knowledge about structured teaching materials and about the use of such teaching aids, and what kind of learning that is offered the children when the preschool teacher uses structured teaching material. The main research question, about what possibilities such teaching might offer the participating children and what can be the obstacles in such teaching as well as what hinders the success in respect of possible learning for the children, are investigated. The study is based on interviews with preschool teachers, filmed teaching situations and analysis of the teaching material NTA. The theoretical framework of the study is pragmatism and the concepts ultimate purpose, proximate purpose (Johansson & Wickman, 2011, Johansson, 2012) and continuity (Dewey, 1938/1998) are used as theoretical tools in the analysis. The result indicates that it is not always that the preschool teachers succeed in the use of the teaching material NTA in a way that can be of support for children to widen their experiences in the area of natural science. The study can offer valuable insights in how to deal with problems that has to be overcome if one wants to fully benefit from a structured teaching

References
REFERENCESDewey, J. (1938/1998). Experience and education. India: Kappa Delta.Johansson, A.-M., & Wickman, P.-O. (2011). A pragmatist approach to learning progressions. In B. Hudson & M. A. Meyer (Eds.), Beyond Fragmentation: Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe (pp. 47-59). Leverkusen: Barbara Budrich Publishers.Johansson, A-M. (2012). Undersökande arbetssätt i NO-undervisningen i grundskolans tidigare årskurser. Doktorsavhandling, Stockholms universitet.


akj@du.se
Anders Kjellsson

Bildung and/or measurable knowledge – about the possibilities of Bildung in the elementary school in Sweden.

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The main purpose of my study is to increase the knowledge of the legitimacy of Bildung in the elementary school in Sweden.     The study draws on qualitative data from interviews with five leading theorists of Bildung. They have been prompted as experts. My first research question is: What are the possibilities and challenges of Bildung in the elementary school?     An entitled question is: What do we actually mean when we talk about Bildung? Bildung is not a distinct word and we can come close to it in different ways. However there are some keynotes, as for example that you don´t decide a process of Bildung in advance and that the process arises from an interest from within, a curiosity. The process of Bildung is further a lifelong process, and the knowledge through this process will also be incorporated into your personality.     Maybe we can come close to the concept of Bildung from what it is not: it is not something measurable, it is not something mechanically or instrumentally, it can´t be controlled by goals and it is not controlled by economic benefit.     Education has, Sven-Eric Liedman states, a beginning and an end. It is associated with requirements. The process, as the person has to adapt, is controlled from the outside. The process of Bildung is on the other side controlled from within, by interest, by a hunger for knowledge. There can, for sure, be educations with goals of Bildung, but the Bildung is a lifelong process. The Bildung has no end goal, you will not be finished. You reflect on the knowledge, put them in a critical lightning: Why is it so? Could it be in another way? In that way Bildung and education are opposites. But Bildung and education must not exclude each other. Even if education has a goal – it will be ended with an approved result – a good education could be an important ingredient in a process of Bildung. In this case it is about the activity as the students has against what they have learned and how they can go on.

References
Ball, Steven J, Maguire, Meg, Braun, Annette, Perryman, Jane and Hoskins, Kate (2012). “Assessment technologies in schools: ‘Deliverology’ and ‘the play of dominations’”. Research Papers in Education 27:5, s 513-533. Bornemark, Jonna (2018). Det omätbaras renässans. En uppgörelse med pedanternas världsherravälde. Stockholm: Volante. Burman, Anders & Sundgren, Per (2010). Inledning. In Burman, Anders & Sundgren, Per (Red.). Bildning. Texter från Esaias Tegnér till Sven-Eric Liedman (11-27). Göteborg: Bokförlaget Daidalos AB. Burman, Anders & Sundgren, Per (2012). Inledning. In Burman, Anders & Sundgren, Per (Red.). Svenska bildningstraditioner. Göteborg: Bokförlaget Daidalos. Enkvist, Inger (2017). ”Postmodernism och subjektivism i Läroplan för grundskolan, Lgr 11.” In Henrekson, Magnus (Red.). Kunskapssynen och pedagogiken. Varför skolan slutade leverera och hur det kan åtgärdas. Stockholm: Dialogos förlag. Gustavsson, Bernt (1996). Bildning i vår tid. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand.Gustavsson, Bernt (2007). Inledning. In Bernt Gustavsson (Red.). Bildningens förvandlingar (7-22). Göteborg: Daidalos. Ingvar, Martin (2017). ”Inte anpassad för hjärnan.” In Henrekson, Magnus (Red.). Kunskapssynen och pedagogiken. Varför skolan slutade leverera och hur det kan åtgärdas. Stockholm: Dialogos förlag. Liedman, Sven-Eric (2001). Ett oändligt äventyr – om människans kunskaper. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers förlag. Liedman, Sven-Eric (2004). Mellan det triviala och det outsägliga. Göteborg: Bokförlaget Daidalos. Liedman, Sven-Eric (2018). “Bildning och utbildning.” In Liberg, Caroline, Lundgren, Ulf P, Säljö, Roger (Red.). Lärande, skola, bildning. Grundbok för lärare. Stockholm: Natur & kultur. Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011, Lgr 11. Stockholm. Ringarp, Johanna (2012). ”Entreprenörskap och li


therese.wahlstrom@gu.se
Therese Wahlström

Playing games - a presentation of a pre-study using games as an artifact to engage conversations about climate change

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Aim
The aim of the study presented is to investigate students at upper secondary school’s communication while using analog games regarding climate change.

The research questions addressed are
•      What are the keywords being used when the students play a game?
•      What are the differences between groups of students playing a game or having a discussion based on questions in regard of conversation and word usage?

Theory
In the study, a sociocultural theory is used with the Vygotskyan idea that learning and human development takes place through social interaction in social and cultural contexts. Games are a sociocultural and globally known artifact that can help with mediation and scaffolding with specific terminology. By listening and observing others, students can easier take in knowledge and become more experienced and in an independent way use the language and knowledge gained. For teachers, integrating games in the curricula can be an instrument to activate students and also give other choices of teaching and learning.MethodThis is a pre-study for a project with a larger number of students participating. In the pre-study, 10 students are recorded while playing the game "Klimatkollen" and 10 students will have a discussion about climate change with 4 discussion questions as a base. Before the study, they are asked to fill in a questionnaire with attitude questions. During the game the students will be observed and video recorded.  Focus group interviews with all the participants will also be conducted. The video observations will be transcribed and analyzed, keywords used will be identified and compared between the groups.ConclusionsThis study will show what keywords the students use associated with the human effects of climate change while playing compared to group discussion. It will also show what kind of discussions occur between students playing and their attitude towards their actions and habits, giving teachers tools for increased communication.

References
Bryman, A. (2011). Samhällsvetenskapliga metoder. (2., [rev.] uppl.) Malmö: Liber.Gee, J.P. (2008). Learning and Games. I Salen, K. (red.) The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.(s. 21–40).doi: 10.1162/dmal.9780262693646.021 Kozulin, A. (2003). Psychological tools and mediated learning. I A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. S. Ageyev & S. M. Miller (Red.), Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context (s. 15-38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Shaffer Williamson, D. (2005) Epistemic Games , I Innovate: Journal of Online Education: Vol. 1: Iss. 6, Article 2. Available at: http://nsuworks.nova.edu/innovate/vol1/iss6/2

mkq@du.se
Malin Kronqvist Håård

New trends of co-operation and trust?

CoAuthors

English

Abstract Summery

The global trend of NPM has blown worldwide during the past two decades, slightly new winds are perhaps now on the up-rise, I am talking about the winds of trust. In 2016 the Swedish government appointed a trust delegation to investigate how public steering could balance the need for control with more trust for the professionals.” Det finns ett behov av att vidareutveckla en tillitsfull styrning av välfärdstjänsterna som bygger på ett ömsesidigt förtroende mellan berörda aktörer” (Dir.2016:51), p. 1). This is a trend that also can be seen in the phenomena Co-operation for the Best School possible (CBS, Samverkan för bästa skola) which is also a government initiative (U2015/3357/S). Co-operation between the Swedish National Agency for Education (SNAE), local education authorities (LEA) and universities is essential in the concept. I will examine the co-operation in this Swedish example of meeting the global pressure of school change as to advance in the international knowledge competition.PurposeThe purpose of my study is to investigate the concept of co-operation in CBS. How is the co-operation between the different stakeholders perceived from the municipal perspective and how can the co-operation processes be understood in terms of the principles trust, openness, support and co-operation?MethodA case study of a municipality where work with CBS have involved four schools  and LEA. A triangulation of the methods interviews, observation of meetings and document reading.Bringselius (2017) seven principles for trustbased steering and leading is used as an analytical tool, especially the principles trust, openness, support and co-operation will be used as a framework for the analysis Tentative ConclusionThere are clear signs of distrust in the case examined, between both the municipality and SNAE and between the Supervisor and the priciples. Research shows that without trust it is difficult to reach a more sustainable level of improvement (Paulsen & Høyer, 2016).

References
Bringselius, L. (2017). Tillitsbaserad styrning och ledning. Ett ramverk. (Samtal om tillit i styrning. En rapportserie med bidrag till Tillitsdelegationen). Stockholm: Finansdepartementet.Dir. 2016:51. Tillit i styrning. Tillgänglig: https://www.regeringen.se/49e316/contentassets/ef675538ed2b4a21afec87a45c6fa3c0/tillit-i-styrningen-dir.-201651 Paulsen, J. M.,  & Høyer,  H. C. (2016) External Control and Professional Trust in Norweigan School Governing: Synthesis from a Nordic Research Project. Nordic Studies in Education 36, 2, pp. 86 – 102.  DOI: 10.18261/issn.1891-5949-2016-02-02 Utbildningsdepartementet, (2015). Uppdrag om samverkan för bästa skola.  (U2015/3357/S). Tillgänglig: https://www.regeringen.se/49cb50/contentassets/583f248e9baa4d9a80f73c30e5f53c30/uppdrag-om-samverkan-for-basta-skola.pdf


camilla.hallgren@umu.se
Camilla Hällgren

Digital Competence at the intersection of social values and identity: In policy, practice and theory?

CoAuthors

Carina Granberg, Anna Rantala, Åsa Björk and Siv Johansson

English

Abstract Summery

In Swedish and European policies, education is identified as one key agent for advancing opportunities of digitalization and delivering digital transformations. In Sweden the National Digitalization Strategy for the School System was presented 2017. Later, the Swedish national curricula were revised with stronger writings about digital competence and put into effect on the 1st of July 2018. Digital competence is said to apply to all students and staff members from preschool to adult education.  In short, these revisions propose, abilities to programming as central, but also abilities to solve problems, to use of digital technology creatively while turning ideas into action, work with digital texts, media and tools, understand and use digital systems and services, to critically approach media and information as well as understand the impact of digitalization on society and individuals. Digitalization policies are indeed comprehensive, yet, we argue there are still important matters calling for attention. For instance, what does competence mean in relation to digitalization? What does digital competence mean in relation to social values in the curricula? And, what does adequate digital competence mean in relation to actual, everyday practices in schools and more widely? This presentation reports early results of an ongoing critical discourse analysis of the intersection of digital competence and social values, in policy and practice. It is argued that there is a discursive gap that needs to be bridged by ethical considerations. It is suggested that if the government’s digital agenda is to be truly in human service, bring about a bright future and a sustainable digital transformation of Sweden, components of social values, what it is to exist as a human; that is what technology does to the human condition, need to be included and equally relevant to other components of digital competences.

References
Ball, S.J. (1994) Education Reform: A Critical and Post-structural Approach, Buckingham, Philadelphia: Open University Press.Ball, S.J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge.Colebatch, H.K. (2002) Policy, 2nd edn, Buckingham: Open University Press.European Commission: Digital Competence in Practice, Ferrari 2012; http://jiscdesignstudio.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/55823162/FinalCSReport_PDFPARAWEB.pdfFairclough, N. (2003) Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research, London: Routledge.Digitaliseringskommissionen, En digital agenda i människans tjänst: en ljusnande framtid kan bli vår : delbetänkande, Stockholm, 2014 http://www.regeringen.se/sb/d/18259/a/236035Ministry of Education (2017) “National digitalisation strategy for the school system” (in Swedish), https://www.regeringen.se/4a9d9a/contentassets/00b3d9118b0144f6bb95302f3e08d11c/nationell-digitaliseringsstrategi-for-skolvasendet.pdfMinistry of Enterprise and Innovation (2017), “For sustainable digital transformation in Sweden: A digital strategy” Dnr: N2017/03643/Dhttps://www.regeringen.se/49adea/contentassets/5429e024be6847fc907b786ab954228f/digitaliseringsstrategin_slutlig_170518-2.pdfMinistry of Enterprise and Innovation (2017), “Fact sheet: For sustainable digital transformation in Sweden: A digital strategy N2017.23. Government Offices of Sweden http://www.government.se/information-material/2017/06/fact-sheet-for-sustainable-digital-transformation-in-sweden--a-digital-strategy/Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation (2016), “Digitalisation effects on individuals and society: Four thematic reports” (in Swedish), SOU 2016: 85 www.regeringen.se/rattsdokument/statens-offentliga-utredningar/2016/12/sou-201685 Promemoria 20170309: Stärkt digital kompetens I skolans styrdokument: https://www.regeringen.se/493c41/contentassets/acd9a3987a8e4619bd6ed95c26ada236/informationsmaterial-starkt-digital-kompetens-i-s


martin.harling@ped.gu.se
Martin Harling

Life, death and the lived curriculum of newly arrived young migrants

CoAuthors

Malin Brännström

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The recent Swedish reform called “Upper secondary law” [Gymnasielagen] (2017/18:252) have spurred public debate about politics of migration and integration (SVT, 2019) and put thousands of unaccompanied migrants in a legal and existential limbo, between hope of obtaining residency in Sweden and fear of getting deported to war, poverty and potential death in Afghanistan.Previous research has shown that unaccompanied minors are made intelligible throughcontradictory discourses. On one hand they are constructed as vulnerable children, in need ofcare and support. On the other, they are constructed as potential sex-assaulters and exploiters of the Swedish welfare system (Stretmo 2014; Hedlund 2015).School plays a central role in the reception and integration of young migrants and asylumseekers (Rutter 2006), described by newly arrived students as a place of social meaning-making and stability (Svensson, 2017). At the same time, a place where newly arrived students to a large extent find themselves being othered and excluded (Nilsson Folke 2017; Cf. Stretmo, 2014).Taking our point of departure from a group of unaccompanied minors fromAfghanistan and their everyday life in a small Swedish community, this case study willethnographically explore the conditions and lived curricula (i.e. Jackson 1990) for a small sample from within this group. The aim for this case study is thus to map, explain and problematize how unaccompanied migrants become intelligible – what Butler (2006) has termed as ”grievable subjects” –  in their daily lives in schools, at meetings with authorities, their lawyers and with healthcare etc. Our special focus concerns their navigation and the role of education in a contingent legal situation.With this study we expect to deepen the understanding of the minor’s own navigations, meaning-makings and positionings. In particular, this pertains to experiences of schooling and social inclusion/exclusion in a context of legal and existential limbo.

References
Butler, J. (2006). Precarious life. London: Verso.Candappa, M. (2000). The right to education and an adequate standard of living. InternationalJournal of Children’s rights, 8 (3), 261-270.Hedlund, D. (2015). “Beard boys”: Standing in the way of a transformation of the self. In Hällgren, C., Dunkels, E., Frånberg, G-M. (Ed) Invisible Boy: The Making of Contemporary Masculinities, 83-94. Umeå: Umeå universitet.Jackson, P. W. (1990). The daily grind. The curriculum studies reader , 2 , 93-102.Nilsson Folke, J. (2017). Lived transitions. Stockholm: Stockholms universitet.Regeringen (2017/18:252). Extra ändringsbudget för 2018 – Ny möjlighet till uppehållstillstånd. Stockholm: Finansdepartementet.Rutter, J. (2006). Refugee Children in the UK . Maidenhead: Open University Press.Schierup, C.-U. & Ålund, A. (2011). Citizenship, neoliberalism and the politics of exclusion.Race & Class, 53 (1), 45–64.Stretmo, L. (2014). Governing the child – Unaccompanied minors in policy, media and practice. Diss. Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2014. Gothenburg.Svensson, M. (2017). Hoppet om en framtidsplats. Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet.SVT (2019).  Kommuner slår larm: Bostadskaos efter nya gymnasielagen. https://www.svt.se/nyheter/inrikes/kommuner-slar-larm-bostadskaos-efter-nya-gymnasielagen

 

linnea.rosengren@gu.se
Linnéa Rosengren

A challenging school leadership

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

This paper presents an ongoing study how schools and school leaders in small rural municipalities responded to the arrival of newly arrived immigrant students from 2015 and onwards. The aim of the planned study is to explore how and in what way school leaders in smaller municipalities act when they receive newly arrived students in their schools. More specifically; what space to act do school leaders have and take in their work to organize education in intractable situations? What agency works within the school leaders’ scope of action?  Situations where there are influencing factors at several levels in the social system can be understood as a so-called wicked problem. In order to describe and understand the problems faced by the small municipalities, the concept is used as a lens to frame and discuss the complexity that emerges. The theoretical starting point is the social constructivist, this implies an ontological position where social phenomena and their meaning are created in social interaction, and the categories through which we understand the world are also social products negotiated and renegotiated by actors. I will use the actor network theory. The theory is well suited for educational research because the concepts can open new issues, perceive phenomena and distinguish the difficult ambivalent and contradictions that are embedded in so many educational issues.The design is a case study. The sample is two or three municipalities, whose population number is less than 10,000, and who have received a large number of newly arrived children in recent years. The data collection will take the form of interviews, observations, policy texts and field notes, the study will be delimited to a specific environment and strive to understand what happens in the local context. The study may provide an important contribution of knowledge about what space to act school leaders have and take, and what agency there is in intractable situations.

References
Alvesson, M. (2017). Tolkning och reflektion : vetenskapsfilosofi och kvalitativ metod (Tredje upplagan ed.): Lund : Studentlitteratur.Bunar, N. (2010). Nyanlända och lärande : en forskningsöversikt om nyanlända elever i den svenska skolan. Stockholm: Stockholm : Vetenskapsrådet.Bunar, N. (2015). Nyanlända och lärande - mottagande och inkludering (1. utg. ed.). Stockholm: Stockholm : Natur & kultur.Fenwick, T., & Edwards, R. (2011). Introduction: Reclaiming and Renewing Actor Network Theory for Educational Research. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43(Suppl), 1-14. doi:10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00667.xKameniar, B. M., Imtoual, A., & Bradley, D. (2010). “Mullin’ the Yarndi” and Other Wicked Problems at a Multiracial Early Childhood Education Site in Regional Australia. Educational Policy, 24(1), 9-27. doi:10.1177/0895904809354321Holme, I. M. (1997). Forskningsmetodik : om kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder (2., [rev. och utök.] uppl. ed.). Lund: Lund : Studentlitteratur.Lerwall, L. (2016). Uppgifts- och ansvarsfördelning i skolan. In E. J. Maria, N. (Ed.), Ledarskap utveckling lärande. Grundbok för rektorer och förskolechefer (pp. 57-78). Stockholm: Natur &Kultur.Lahdenperä, P. (2015). Skolledarskap i mångfald (Upplaga 1 ed.). Lund: Lund : Studentlitteratur.Lahdenperä, P., & Sundgren, E. (2017). Nyanlända, interkulturalitet och flerspråkighet i klassrummet (Första upplagan ed.): Stockholm : Liber.Skott, P., & Törnsén, M. (2016). Kalejdoskop: om skolledare i lokala kontexter. In E. J. Maria, N. (Ed.), Ledarskap utveckling lärande. Grundbok för rektorer och förskolechefer (pp. 135-160). Stockholm: Natur &Kultur.Rittel, H., & Webber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Integrating Knowledge and Practice to Advance Human Dignity, 4(2), 155-169. doi:10.1007/BF01405730Waldring, I. (2017). Practices of change in the education sector: professionals dealing with ethnic school segregation. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(2), 247-263. doi:10.108


stina.garlin@kau.se
Stina Gårlin

Literacypraktiker i särskild undervisningsgrupp

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Denna presentation handlar om mitt avhandlingsprojekt, vars syfte är att undersöka literacypraktiker i särskild undervisningsgrupp för grundskoleelever med diagnos inom Autismspektrumtillstånd, AST, samt konsekvenser för elevgruppen i realiseringen av grundskolans kursplaner. Studien utgår från sociokulturella teorier om lärande och literacy där uppfattningen att lärande sker i samspel är central, vilket även är den syn som genomsyrar Lgr11. Diagnosen AST beskrivs innebära en nedsatt funktion i förmågan till social interaktion (ICD-10, MINI-D 5) vilket väcker frågor i relation till läroplanen.Forskning visar att AST är en diagnos som ofta medför läs- och skrivsvårigheter (Nally et al., 2018; Asaro-Saddler, 2016), men det saknas studier om ungdomar och AST diagnoser där gruppen själv får komma till tals (Skolverket, 2018). De elever som står i centrum för denna studie tycks alltså löpa risk att möta hinder i sin skriftspråksutveckling varför det finns behov av forskning om hur det denna kan främjas i pedagogiska praktiker. Denna studie utgår teoretiskt från New Literacy Studies (Barton, 2007) och avser att bidra till kunskapen om skolsituationen för elever med diagnosen AST genom att fokusera på literacypraktiker i klassrummet. I studien följer jag elever och pedagoger i skolår 7-9 i en resursskola under ett läsår. Det empiriska materialet utgörs av deltagande observationer av klassrumsarbete dokumenterat med videokamera samt intervjuer med elever och pedagoger. Bubers (1990a/1923) relationsfilosofi används för att analysera data från klassrumspraktiken. De preliminära resultat som framkommit visar att interaktionen mellan elever och lärare är avgörande för elevernas deltagande i klassrummets literacypraktiker vilket kan ses som en paradox i relation till diagnosens kriterier. I den studerade gruppen präglas klassrummets literacypraktiker av ett dialogiskt samspel där relationer framstår som betydelsefulla för elevernas deltagande i olika literacyhändelser.

References
Asaro-Saddler, (2016). Using Evidence-Based Practices to Teach Writing to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Preventing School Failure, 60(1), 79–85. Barton, D. (2007). Literacy: an introduction to the ecology of written language. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Buber, M. (1990/1923) Jag och Du. Ludvika: Dualis förlag AB. ICD-10-SE (2016)MINI-D 5 (2015)Nally et al. (2018). An analysis of reading abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders (47) 14-25.               Skolverket (2011). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet Lgr11. Stockholm: Skolverket. Skolverket (2018). Olika metoder behövs för barn med autism. Hämtad från www.skolverket.se/skolutveckling/forskning-och-utvarderingar/forskning/olika-metoder-behovs-for-barn-med-autism


sofia.linden@isd.su.se
Sofia Lindén

…att jag inte kommer att göra något under lektionen känns läskigt

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Presentationen bygger på material från ett pågående avhandlingsprojekt med arbetstiteln Stöttning för lärande: en studie av studiehandledning på modersmål för andraspråkselever. Syftet med presentationen är att lyfta pedagogisk stöttning där emotioner och språk- och kunskapsutveckling är inblandade.Baserad på Vygotskys sociokulturella teori och närmaste utvecklingszonen syftar stöttning i pedagogiskt sammanhang till att genom social interaktion och lärarstöd möjliggöra elevens lärande och självständighet. Emotionell stöttning som bidrar till bl.a. frustrationshantering och uppmuntrande (Rosiek, 2003) visar sig vara lika viktig som språk- och kunskapsutvecklande stöttning (Gibbons, 2008).Kopplad till projektets intresseområde lyfts teorier upp som sociokulturell teori och teorin om närmaste utvecklingszonen samt centrala begrepp som stöttning och emotioner. Empiriska data har skapats genom en etnografisk ansats och omfattas av audio- och videoinspelat material med undervisningsobservationer samt intervjuer med studiehandledare, elever och ämnes/klasslärare från olika grundskolor och olika kommuner i mellansverige. Materialet innehåller detaljerad kunskap om stöttningsprocesser där flera språkliga resurser används och där elever och studiehandledare befinner sig i en utsatt position. Preliminärt resultat visar på framträdande av emotionell stöttning och språk- och kunskapsutvecklande stöttning vid studiehandledningssammanhang. Den emotionella stöttningen visar sig i form av empati, uppmuntrande, frustrationskontroll och motivationsskapande. Den språk- och kunskapsutvecklande stöttningen innehåller bl.a. transspråkande, vägledning, demonstrering och modellering. Stöttning genom studiehandledning visar sig bidra till elevers välmående och språk- och kunskapsutveckling.Nyckelord: stöttning, emotioner, sociokulturell teori, närmaste utvecklingszonen, studiehandledning

References
ReferenserGibbons, P. (2008). ’It was taught good and I learned a lot’: Intellectual practices and ESL     learners in the middle years. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy Vol. 31 No 2,     155-173.Rosiek, J. (2003). Emotional scaffolding: An exploration of the teacher knowledge at the     intersection of student emotion and the subject matter. Journal of Teacher Education, 54,     399-412.


ulrika.boden@liu.se
Ulrika Bodén

The Construction of Reading a Screen as Visual Analytics and Students Interact

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

In the increasingly digital and global era new technologies are generating an information overflow and a rapid change of how we get hold of, handle and communicate information. Visual Analytics is a technology that offers support to analyze vast amounts of data through interactive visualizations. However, few studies have examined how the practice of reading a screen is constructed together with such visual technology. This study investigates how visual analytics and students interact in social science secondary classroom. The aim is to explore how the relations between visuals, texts and students shape the construction of reading the interactive and multimodal screen. Inspired by the method design-based research a close collaboration between social science teachers and researchers was set up. They jointly designed and conducted classroom interventions. The interactions between the visual analytics application Statistics eXplorer (displaying visual statistics of the world) and the students were video recorded. A socio-material semiotic approach guides the study in order to examine the interactions between all actors (the visual analytics application, the interactive screen, teachers, students, etcetera). Exploring the socio-material relations clarifies how the reading is constructed as well as what might strengthen or weaken this practice. The analyses demonstrate that reading an interactive screen is a complex, non-linear and dynamic construction. Students navigate to certain areas of the interface as well as through several layers of it. Visuals such as color, highlighting and movement attract students’ attention in a dominant way and written text becomes subordinate and at times even invisible. It is also evident that a combination of visuals and text support reading a screen. This paper argues that, it is vital for teachers to support students’ visual literacy skills such as awareness of how to construct their reading of visual information.

References
Anderson, T., & Shattuck, J. (2012). Design-based research: A decade of progress in education research? Educational Researcher, 41(1), 16–25.Avgerinou, M. D., & Pettersson, R. (2011). Toward a cohesive theory of visual literacy. Journal of Visual Literacy, Vol. 30 (2)Jern, M. (2010 May). Educating students in official statistics using embedded geovisual analytics storytelling methods. Eurographics 2010, Norrköping.Kress, G. R. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. New York: Routledge.Kress, G.R (2010). Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London: Routledge.Law, J. (1987). Technology and heterogeneous engineering: The case of Portuguese expansion. In W. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes & T. J. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology (pp. 111-134). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Law, J. (2007). Actor Network Theory and Material Semiotics, version of 25th April 2007, downloaded 4th of January 2019, available at http://www.heterogeneities.net/publications/Law2007ANTandMaterialSemiotics.pdfLundblad, P. (2013). Applied Geovisual Analytics and Storytelling. [Elektronisk resurs]. Norrköping: Department of Science and Technology, Linköping UniversityMarr, B. (2015). Big data: using smart big data, analytics and metrics to make better decisions and improve performance.[Books24x7 version] Available from: http://common.books24x7.com.e.bibl.liu.se/toc.aspx?bookid=80814.Rasmussen, M. (2014). Det digitala läsandet: begrepp, processer och resultat. Härnösand: Avd för utbildningsvetenskap, MittuniversitetetStenliden, L (2014). Visual Storytelling interacting in School. Learning Conditions in the Social Science Classroom. Linköpings universitetWalsh, G. (2016). Screen and Paper Reading Research – A Literature Review. Australian academic & Research Libraries, 47:3 160-173. DOI: 10.1080/00048623.2016.1227661


pia.almarlind@umu.se
Pia Almarlind

The role of science education - A content analysis of Swedish steering documents.

CoAuthors

Eva Knekta, Christina Ottander

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Education has an important role in preparing students personally, socially and intellectually, for future challenges as citizens. But what is the role of science education in preparing students for the future? During the last decades, conflicting ideas about the balance between developing science knowledge needed as citizens and knowledge for future studies in science and technology (Fensham 1988; Roberts, 2007), have led to several revisions of the science curriculum in many countries. The aim of this exploratory study is to illustrate and problematize how the functions and purposes of education are expressed in the curricula and in the different science syllabuses in compulsory and upper secondary school. First, a content analysis of the syllabuses was done with respect to functions of education, i.e., qualification, socialization and subjectification (Biesta, 2009), and with respect to curriculum emphases targeting different aims of science education (Roberts, 2007; Roberts & Östman, 1998; Östman, 1995). Each sentence in the documents were assigned categories in respective framework. This enabled a quantitative comparison of functions and purposes expressed in different documents and different parts of the documents (e.g. aims, core content, and knowledge requirements). Second, a qualitative analysis of each sentence and clusters of sentences in respective category was done. Preliminary results show that different science subjects, at the different school levels, have different accentuations of functions and purposes. Furthermore, the sentences regarding knowledge requirements for school levels 7-9 are more difficult to categorize than other parts in the syllabus. Most text concerning socialization and subjectification, i.e., how to develop as an independent citizen able to make decisions is presented in the curriculum and is scarce/rare in the syllabus. We are looking forward discussing the different aims of science education from the results of this study.

References
Biesta, G. (2009). Good education in an age of measurement: on the need to reconnect with the question of purpose in education. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability 21(1): 33-46.Fensham, P. J. (1988). Familiar but different: Some dilemmas and new directions in science education. In P. J. Fensham (Eds.), Development and dilemmas in science education (pp. 1–26). London: Falmer Press.Roberts, D. A. & Östman, L. (1998). Problems of meaning in science curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.Roberts, D. A. (2007). Scientific Literacy/science literacy. In S.K. Abell & N.G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research in science education (pp. 729–780) Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Östman, L. (1995) Socialisation och mening - No-utbildning som politiskt och miljömoraliskt problem. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Studies in Education 61.


johanna.sundstrom@umu.se
Johanna Sundström

A new curriculum for Swedish preschools - a case study of a municipality initiated implementation project

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

A new curriculum for Swedish preschools - a case study of a municipality initiated implementation projectA new curriculum, Lpfö18 (Skolverket, 2018), for Swedish preschools comes to force in July 2019, following a review of preschools that revealed varying quality standards across the sector (Skolinspektionen, 2018). The government’s response was to place higher emphasis on knowledge and learning in a revised curriculum (Utbildningsdepartementet, 2017). In a highly decentralised system, responsibility for policy implementation falls on municipalities and preschool leaders. The study is part of a doctoral thesis that aims to explore the new curriculum policy and its implementation in one municipality. This presentation draws on the following research questions: How do municipal officials understand and interpret the new curriculum policy? What resources are provided to leaders and preschools?The research is designed as a case study of curriculum implementation. In analysing how curriculum policy is received and how implementation is organised, the lenses of policy enactment (Ball 2012) are used to describe how national policy is mediated at local level. The study draws on (i) interviews with municipality officials; (ii) analysis of documentary materials; (iii) observations of the five implementation meetings organised by the municipality for preschool leaders. Preliminary findings suggest the significance of collegial learning, and issues of trust and confidence in the leader’s competence (se also Eriksson, Beach, and Svensson (2015)).

References
Reference listEriksson, A., Beach, D., & Svensson, A.-K. (2015). Förskolechefens anavar och uppdrag i ett kommunalt förvaltningsperspektiv. Nordisk Barnehageforskning, 11. doi:10.7577/nbf.1204Skolinspektionen. (2018). Förskolans kvalitet och måluppfyllelse - ett treårigt regeringsuppdrag att granska förskolan. . Regeringsrapport 2018.Skolverket. (2018). Läroplan för förskolan.Utbildningsdepartementet. (2017). Uppdrag om en översyn av läroplanen för förskolan. (Diarienummer: U2016/05591/S, U2017/01929/S). Retrieved from https://www.regeringen.se/regeringsuppdrag/2017/04/uppdrag-om-en-oversyn-av-laroplanen-for-forskolan/


peter.bergstrom@umu.se
Peter Bergström

Merging three schools into one new school: training teachers for team-based teaching

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

This paper reports on a project where three schools in one municipality are involved in a 2-years preparation process of merging three existing schools into one greater newly built school. In each of these schools, training arenas has been set up based on the architecture of the new school building (e.g. principles of room-in-the-room, small amphitheaters, varying furniture and rich access to ICTs). The new school highlights an organizational shift where teachers will move from individual work in classes of 23-30 students to team-based teaching. Each team teaches one whole grade with approx. 100 students in home arenas. This paper focuses on how the three existing schools prepare teachers for such a shift. The aim is to increase the understanding of what skills teachers need and develop for team-based teaching. The research question addressed: what characterizes the pedagogical practice in the training arenas in terms of how the arena is used and teacher-student communication and interaction? A participatory design-based research methodology (Holmgren, 2019) was applied where this paper focus on the initial phase of teachers’ work in the training arenas. The analysis draws on a) classroom observations based on audio recordings from the teachers’ communication, notes, and photographs, and b) teacher and principal interviews. The data were analyzed with support of a typology where Bernstein’s (2000) theory of classification and framing were operationalized into a two-dimensional typology based on the physical organization of space (classification), and teachers’ communication in practice (framing) (Bergström et al., 2017). Preliminary results indicate possibilities and challenges in the pedagogical practice. Possibilities concern a richer environment which provides variation in students’ learning, while challenges concern increase demands on students’ self-regulation when power and control was distributed to the students.

References
Bergström, P., Mårell-Olsson, E., & Jahnke, I. (2017). Variations of symbolic power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Swedish teachers’ enacted didactical design decisions. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. doi:10.1080/00313831.2017.1324902Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique (Revised Edition ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Holmberg, J. (2019). Designing for added pedagogical value: A design-based research study of teachers’ educational design with ICT. Degree of Doctor of philosophy. Stockholm: Stockholm University.


adriana.velasquez@umu.se
Adriana Velasquez

Gender and AD/HD in a Spanish School

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The purpose of this article is to study/analyze how teachers’ gender is interconnected to the way they teach, and how this in turn affects the way pupils with the neuropsychiatric diagnosis AD/HD behave in the classroom. Based on knowledge produced in earlier work (Velasquez 20012), in which I studied children with this diagnosis placed in a special teaching group in a Swedish primary school, my focus now is on data from a classroom in a Spanish school, in which children diagnosed with AD/HD attend. The data used in the study consists of video recordings made in 2013 in a first-grade school class. The article takes an ethnomethodological approach (Garfinkel 1967) in order to shed light on the interaction in the classroom and how teachers and pupils negotiate situations in the context of teaching and learning. As a complement, I use an intersectional approach (McCall 2005) in the understanding of how gender interact with disability and with the asymmetrical power relation which take place between teachers and pupils in the group. An overview of the data and a preliminary analysis of it shows different behavioral pattern of the children in question when a male or a female teacher leads the lesson. A possible interpretation of this pattern is that the child’s perception of the teacher’s pedagogical leadership is related to their gender and that the pupil acts in accord of it. In this case I want to search better understanding of the mechanisms behind the relationship between the teacher’s gender the way (s)he teaches, as well as how this affect both their pedagogical leadership and the child’s behavioral adjustment to this gendered teaching conditions.

References
Velasquez, Adriana (2012) AD/HD i skolans praktik - en studie om normativitet och motstånd i en särskild undervisningsgrupp. Uppsala Studies in Education N° 130, Acta Universitatis Uppsaliensis.Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in Ethnomethodology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs.McCall, L. (2005) The Complexity of Intersectionality. Journal of Women, Culture and society, 30(3), s. 1771-1800.


kso@du.se
Karen Stormats

Flipped i svenska klassrum

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Flipp beskrivs i såväl skol- som vetenskapliga sammanhang som en ny undervisningsmetod där den individuella eleven och dess aktiva inlärning i sätts i centrum och där lektionstid används till diskussion och laboration, medan informationsinhämtning sker utanför lektionstid via IKT. Flipp, som har sitt ursprung i en amerikans undervisningskontext, har under senare år nått spridning i Sverige, varför det är intressant att undersöka flipp i en svensk kontext .Tidigare forskning ringar in tre intressevågor där den första vågen undersökte attityder och upplevelser av flippad undervisning. I den andra forskningsvågen studerades effekter och resultat av flipp. I den tredje och pågående vågen riktas forskningsintressen mot definitioner och filosofiska aspekter av flipp. Min licentiatstudie, med titeln Flipp i tal och handling, befinner sig i den tredje vågen. Studien syftar till att fördjupa förståelsen av flipp som undervisningsmetod såsom metoden framträder i flippande gymnasielärares tal och handling. Lärares syften med att flippa samt vilka roller och aktiviteter som framträder i den flippade undervisningen diskuteras. I studien diskuteras flipp i en utbildningshistorisk och utbildningsfilosofiskt kontext. Studien är en fallstudie som bygger på intervjuer och observationer med tre gymnasielärare som flippar sin undervisning. Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i socialkonstruktivistisk teoribildning, där Berger och Luckmann har en framträdande roll. Medan den socialkonstruktivistiska teoribildningen utgör studiens fond, utgör Deweys progressivistiska utbildningsfilosofi dess diskussionspartner. Studien visar att flipp i lärares tal kan framstå som en metod för att skapa flexibilitet och en god lärandemiljö i undervisningen samt att lärarna tänker sig att flipp bidrar till att eleverna blir aktiva. Studien visar även att det finns en diskrepans mellan den bild som lärarna framställer och den bild av flipp som har kunnat observeras.

References
Ahmed, Ouda K. A. (2016). ”Flipped Learning As A new Educational Paradigm: An Analytical Critical Study”. European Scientific Journal. April 2016 edition vol. 12, No 10.Barker, Daniel (2013). Flipped Classroom – det omvända arbetssättet. Stockholm: Natur och kultur.Berger, P. L och Luckmann, T (2011). Kunskapssociologi. Hur individen uppfattar och formar sin sociala verklighet. Stockholm: Wahlström och Widstrand.Bergman, Jonathan och Sams, Aron (2012). Flipp Your Classroom. Reach Every Student in Every Class Every day. Washington DC, USA.Bishop, J och Verleger, M (2013). “The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research”. American Society for Engineering Education. Utah State University, USA.Dewey, John (1938). Experience and Education. New York, USA: Touchstone.Dewey, John (2004). Individ, skola och samhälle: utbildningsfilosofiska texter. Stockholm, Natur och kultur.Dewey, John (2009). Demokrati och utbildning. Göteborg: Bokförlaget Diadalos.Logan, Brenda (2015). “Deep exploration of the Flipped Classroom before implementing”. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies. Volum 16:12, July, 2015.Zainuddin, Z och Halili, S. H (2016). ”Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study”. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 2016, Volym 17, Number 3.Zauber, William James (2016). “The flipped classroom, a review of the literature”. Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 48, Issue: 2, pp.97-103.


marie.tanner@kau.se
Marie Tanner

Vem blir läraren i klassrummets digitalisering? Positioneringar i marknadsföring och användning av ed-tech produkter.

CoAuthors

Christina Olin-Scheller, Héctor Pérez Prieto

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Till följd av digitaliseringssträvanden finns idag höga förväntningar på lärare i gymnasieskolan att införliva digitala resurser i undervisningen. I den här studien ses lärare som policyaktörer som har att förhålla sig till såväl statlig styrning som en växande ed-tech marknad som erbjuder programvaror och annan teknik. Syftet med presentationen är att utforska lärarrollen i relation till undervisning med ed-tech produkter, både med avseende på hur läraren framställs i produkterna och hur de positioneras i klassrummets interaktion i användningen av produkten. Vi utgår från det teoretiska begreppet policy enactment (Ball et al., 2012) och betraktar såväl ed-tech företagens marknadsföring som lärarens sätt att hantera ed-tech i undervisningen som uttryck för hur policy hanteras, förhandlas och omformas av aktörer på olika nivåer. I analysen kombinerar vi positioneringsteori och samtalsanalys (Depperman, 2013; Kayi-Aydar & Miller, 2018) för att undersöka hur lärare positioneras i dessa båda sammanhang. Det empiriska underlaget utgörs av data från en större videoetnografisk studie där vi följt 15 fokuselevers användning av digitala resurser på studieförberedande program i gymnasieskolan, totalt 45 timmar med inspelade lektioner. Flera videokameror har använts, vilket gjort det möjligt att fånga lärarens instruktioner, elevens interaktioner liksom datorskärmen. I studien analyseras två exempel från datamaterialet där läraren introducerar programvaror i undervisningen, i kombination med en innehållsanalys av programvarans hemsida. Resultaten visar hur ed-tech produkterna framförallt används för att lösa klassiska pedagogiska problem.  Ed-tech produkterna materialiserar digitaliseringspolicy i klassrummet, vilket bland annat leder till att läraren positioneras mellan konkurrerande diskurser om effektivitet och kontroll i marknadsföringens retorik och pedagogiska överväganden i den vardagliga klassrumspraktiken.

References
Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge.Deppermann, A. 2013. “How to Get a Grip on Identities-in-interaction: (What) Does ‘Positioning’ Offer More Than ‘Membership Categorization’? Evidence from a Mock Story.” Narrative Inquiry 23 (1): 62–88.Kayi-Aydar, H. & Miller, E. (2018): Positioning in classroom discourse studies: a state-of-the-art review, Classroom Discourse (published online)


lotta.vingsle@umu.se
Charlotta Vingsle

Teachers’ argumentation in oral presentations

CoAuthors

Tomas Bergqvist, Ewa Bergqvist,Magnus Österholm

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Learning mathematics includes becoming aware of connections between mathematical ideas and between new information and prior knowledge. A teacher can show or strengthen such connections by giving logical arguments during presentations. Argumentation is therefore a central part of teaching mathematics, but research still indicates that it is unusual in teacher presentations (Lithner & Bergqvist, 2017. The aim of the study is to deepen the knowledge about mathematics teachers use of arguments in their oral presentations at different school levels. The theoretical model and the definition of argumentation are based on research on informal argumentation made by Toulmin (1958). We use a simplified model that we denote explicit argumentative structures (AS). An AS is when something is brought forward as reason for a statement signaled by an argumentation marker (AM). An AM can clearly signal logical connections (e.g., since), but can also be a word that not always is used as a connection (e.g., then). Whole-class lessons from 20 randomly selected teachers (school year 1-12) were analysed. The analysis determined whether a statement was included in an explicit argumentative structure or not and identified the argumentation markers used. To investigate what the argumentation concerned, each statement was also categorized as concerning mathematics (e.g., concepts and objects), pedagogic (e.g., how to learn mathematics) or other (e.g., organization of lesson) to ensure that the content of the argumentation concerned mathematics. Preliminary and partial results show that about 25 % of the teachers´ mathematical statements are included in an explicit argumentative structure. In year 10-12, teachers’ explicit argumentation concern mathematics to a higher degree (70 %) compared to the other school levels (20-40 %). In year 1-3, teacher argue more for how to learn mathematics than in year 10-12.

References
Bergqvist, T., & Lithner, J. (2012). Mathematical reasoning in teachers’ presentations. The journal of mathematical behavior, 31(2), 252-269.Toulmin, S. 1958. The uses of argument, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


gln@du.se
Gunilla Lindqvist

The world moves in to the Everyday school: Perspectives on education for students with foreign background

CoAuthors

Professor Monika Vinterek, Dalarna University

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The purpose of the paper is to present some results from a project investigating how primary school teachers, principals, heads of the municipality’s school department and school politicians, meet with students with foreign background in one municipality in Sweden. The purpose of the project is to provide perspectives on educational work in a global era where Swedish schools meet students from a variety of backgrounds with different prerequisites. In this paper we focus on the primary school teachers’ and the principal’s views.The theoretical framing is primarily based on theories on Practice architectures (Kemmis, 2014). Within this theory, a practice is defined as a socially established cooperative activity. Furthermore, a relational perspective (Aspelin, 2015, 2018; Biesta, 2004; Persson, 1998) is used to provide further perspectives on schools’ work with students with foreign background.During 2014-2018, the researchers have followed and actively participated in the development work of a municipality with many students with foreign background. The data collection for the entire project entails interviews with heads of the municipality’s school department, school politicians, principals and primary school teachers. The empirical material also includes field notes, recorded focus group interviews, notes from the participants and recorded meetings with the staff. The analyzing process can be described as a hermeneutic process (Ödman, 2005) where the researchers have gone between fractions and the whole as well as between different levels of interpretation. We found that the teachers and the principals expressed different kinds of challenges and possibilities in their everyday work at school. Some of these challenges seem to be new in educational work. The teachers and the principals expressed new ways to handle this new situation. At the same time as they found this very difficult they seemed very engaged and devoted in their work.

References
ReferencesAspelin, J. (2018). Lärares relationskompetens: vad är det? : hur kan den utvecklas?. (Första upplagan). Stockholm: Liber.Aspelin, J. (2014). Beyond individual teaching. A Relational Construction of Pedagogical Attitude. Education Inquiry, Vol. 5, No 2, 1-8.Biesta, G. (2004). Mind the Gap! Communication and the educational relation. In: No Education Without Relation, C. Bingham and A.M. Sidorkin (eds.). NY: Peter Lang Pub. Inc.Relation, C. Bingham and A.M. Sidorkin (eds.). NY: Peter Lang Pub. Inc.Kemmis, S. (2014). Refections on How the Theory of Practice Architectures is Being Used in the Nordic Context. I K. Rönnerman & P. Salo. (Red.). Lost in Practice: Transforming Nordic Educational Action Research, 205–218. Rotterdam: Sense. Persson, B. (1998). Den motsägelsefulla specialpedagogiken – motiveringar, genomförande och konsekvenser. Specialpedagogiska rapporter no. 11. Göteborgs universitet.Ödman, P-J. (2005). Tolkning, förståelse, vetande. Hermeneutik i teori och praktik. Stockholm: Norstedts.


eva.reimers@gu.se
Eva Reimers

Schools as safe or dangerous spaces- #metoo and education

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The #metoo movement fast developed within Swedish media and the public. It was picked up by female actors, authors, journalists, nurses, doctors, lawyers, academics, truck-drivers, teachers, students, athletes, entrepreneurs, bankers, chefs, waiters, construction workers as well as other vocations, each with their own hashtag. The force of the movement was (is) immense making evident that a structural pattern of sexual harassment saturates Swedish society. This might have come to some surprise, considering that Sweden often is described as one of the most gender equal nations in the world. Still, in comparison to other European countries, the amount of women coming forward as having been subjected to sexual harassments at work and in school was huge. Even if the extent of sexual harassment of women came as no surprise for most women, it nevertheless created a crack in the Swedish self-image. The first section of the paper explores relations between the big impact of #metoo in Sweden and Swedish “femo-nationalism”. Femo-nationalism, draws on “homonationalism” (Puar 2007), pointing to how feminism is regarded as a national trait constituting Sweden as gender-equal, making subjects, practices, and “cultures” that are not seen as gender-equal and feminist non-Swedish.The second section, presents a discourse analysis of the student and teacher metoo-hashtags, pointing to education as a non-safe space for girls, women, and lgbtq-persons. Education and schooling is in the media put forward as both culprit and remedy in relation to sexual harassments. Based on that, and in an effort to take the challenge from the metoo-movement seriously, the third and final part of the paper discusses #metoo challenges and implications for sex and relationship education in order to make schools safer for girls, women, and lgbtq persons.Data for the paper is mostly based on the educational metoo-hashtags #icke-godkant, #rackupphanden, and #tystiklassen.

References
Martinsson, L., Reimers, E. (2014). Skola i normer. Malmö: Gleerups.Puar, J. (2007). Terrorist Assamblages. Homonationalism in Queer Times. London: Duke University Press.Ringrose, J. (2013). Postfeminist Education?London: Routledge.


peter.bergstrom@umu.se
Peter Bergström

Making the shift from the traditional classroom to the active learning classroom:  possibilities and challenges

CoAuthors

Maria Rönnlund and Åse Tieva

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Educational practices are influenced by a complex interaction between different factors of school life and changes in the physical environment can affect teaching practices in different directions (Gislason, 2010; Woolner & Uline, 2019). This paper reports on a 3-years case study of a school development project in a Swedish upper secondary school. The project initiators (three teachers), wanted to change teaching towards student active learning, and as part of that change they designed and prepared a classroom inspired by the Active Learning Classroom model (Baepler et al. 2016). The aim of the paper is to increase the understanding of possibilities and challenges when changing the pedagogical practice. The research questions addressed are: What characterise the pedagogical practices in the traditional vs newly designed classroom in terms of communication and interaction between teachers and students, and what characterises the pedagogical change? A participatory design-based research (DBR) methodology was applied in three phases: the exploration phase, the development phase and the evaluation phase (Holmberg, 2019). This paper presents findings from a selected sequence of three months of the development phase, exploring teaching in the shift from the traditional classroom to the ALC. The analysis draws on a) video and audio recorded observations of lessons (N=15) in traditional classrooms and ALC, b) teachers’ individual evaluations of lessons based on pre-formulated reflexive questions, and c) focus group discussions (N=3) on the topic ‘teaching for students’ active learning’.  The data was analysed using Bernstein’s concepts classification and framing (2000). Preliminary results indicate variations in outcome of pedagogical change depending on how the teachers worked in the traditional classroom. For example, when the students were unaware of working in groups and using digital facilities collectively, this led to challenges in the active learning classroom.

References
Baepler, P., Walker, JD., Brooks, DC., Saichaie, K., Petersen, C. (2016). A guide to teaching in the Active Learning Classroom. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing.Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Gislason, N. (2010). Architectural design and the learning environment: A framework for school design research. Learning Environment Research, 13, 127–145.Holmberg, J. (2019). Designing for added pedagogical value: A design-based research study of teachers’ educational design with ICT. Degree of Doctor of philosophy. Stockholm: Stockholm University.Woolner, P. & Uline, C.L. (2019). The School Building as Organizational Agent: Leveraging Physical Learning Environments to Advance the Educational Enterprise. In: Connolly, M.E.H., Eddy-Spicer, D. H., James, C., Kruse, S.D. (Eds). International Handbook on School Organization. pp. 576-596. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage


helena.vennberg@umu.se
Helena Vennberg

Inclusive mathematics education for students at risk

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

What mathematics education is needed for students in preschool-class, to provide all students the conditions for good counting ability? This study reports of students’ mathematical knowledge in Grade 3 after an extensive whole-class intervention (TRC) for all students during their preschool-class year.Previous studies show that mathematics teaching in preschool-class, based on the teaching model in Thinking, reason and counting (TRC) (Sterner, Helenius & Wallby, 2014) both in short and long-term has positive effect on students' mathematical performance. TRC also seems to increase teachers' ability to identify students at-risk of facing future mathematical difficulties (Sterner, 2015; Vennberg, 2015; Vennberg & Norqvist, 2018). Students who during their preschool-class year followed TRC and in addition were identified as at-risk students, significantly reduces difference to their not-at-risk peers, based on the national test results in Grade 3 (Vennberg & Norqvist, 2018). For that reason, differences on the subtests in the nation test, for whole-group and at-risk students were examined. Furthermore, areas of mathematics in the subtests were analysed and how these are linked to the work of TRC. The results show that the TRC-group performed better on all subtests. Significant difference (whole-group) appears on two subtests, written calculation methods and mental arithmetic in multiplication and division and the significance of the equality sign.  The at-risk students (TRC) follow the same pattern on their subtests’ results and in addition show significant difference in yet another subtest, proportional relationship, mathematical similarities and problem solving. This study indicates that teaching with TRC in preschool-class help at-risk students and can be a part of putting all students' learning in focus (Vennberg, submitted). Keywords: inclusion, preschool-class, mathematical difficulties, national test, areas of mathematics

References
Sterner, G., Helenius, O. & Wallby, K. (2014). Tänka, resonera och räkna i förskoleklass. Sterner, G. (2015). Tal, resonemang och representationer- en interventionsstudie i matematik i förskoleklass (licentiat thesis). Göteborg: Göteborgs Universitet.Vennberg, H & Norqvist, M. (2018). Counting on – long term effects of an early intervention programme. In Bergqvist, E., Österholm, M., Granberg, C & Sumpter, L. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 4, 355-362. Umeå, Sweden: PME. Vennberg, H. (2015). Förskoleklass - ett år att räkna med: förskoleklasslärares möjligheter att följa och analysera elevernas kunskapsutveckling i matematik (licentiate thesis). Umeå: Umeå Universitet.Vennberg, H. (submitted). Accountability for count ability: all students’ right to be counted. Inclusive mathematics education for students at risk.


tfr@du.se
Therese Friberg

“Weak student” as a Social Representation - Shaping and Transforming in Dialogue

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Communication about students is an inevitable and important part of teachers’ work.It is necessary to assess and develop students’ knowledge and it does involve exchanging information about students with different prerequisites and needs.   The aim of this study is to develop knowledge regarding communication about students with different prerequisites and needs and how this communication portrays perceptions of normality and deviance. In this study the communication of “weak student” is particularly in focus. Furthermore, it aims to examine dialogical relations in which representations about these students are shared and shaped and what functions these representations might have within the pedagogical arena.   The study’s theoretical framework rests on the theory of social representations with an emphasis on dialogism as an epistemological outset (Marková 2003. Marková et al. 2007).      The study will be presented as a thesis by publication containing two articles as I am working towards a licentiate degree. At this conference I would like to discuss the primary results to the first research questions and possible ways to understand and analyze these results. The RQ:s are:How are representations of “weak student” shaped in dialogue between teachers in primary school? What function do these representations have in this particular dialogical relation? The empirical data concerning the first RQ:s is being obtained from focus group interviews. Four interviews have been carried out until today’s date.   Some primary results from the focus group interviews indicate that the representation of “weak student” in dialogue between teachers works as an umbrella concept for different types of issues that might hinder students from reaching desirable results from the school point of view. These issues, according to the teachers, can for example be ADHD or dyslexia.

References
References: Marková, Ivana. (2003). Dialogicality and Social Representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Marková, Ivana., Linell, Per., Grossen, Michèle & Salazar Anne O. (2007). Dialogue in Focus Groups. Exploring Socially Shared Knowledge. London: Equinox Publishing


wmr@du.se
Maria Walla

Mathematical assessments for five- and six-year-old students in Sweden and Norway

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

In many countries, including those in the Nordic region, there has been a growing trend towards measuring students´ knowledge and understanding, a trend that is being seen even among young children. Since 2011, a mathematics assessment tool has been available for five- and six-year-old students in Norway. In Sweden, an assessment intended for students of the same age will become obligatory as of autumn 2019. When a new assessment becomes obligatory in early mathematics, its content influences the present discourse on mathematics education. In addition, as the discourse on mathematics education changes, the content that is taught, as well as the teaching and learning of mathematics, may also change. This study focuses on the mathematical content of two assessments that at first sight appear to differ greatly. Which mathematical skills are prioritised in the two assessments and what implications are there considering the discourse on early mathematics education in the two countries of Norway and Sweden? Discourse analysis are used both as a theoretical framework and as a methodological device. To highlight and compare the mathematical discourses that form the foundation of the two assessments, the written language has been analysed. According to Gee (2014b), language creates meaning in social practices while also deriving its meaning from social practices. In this study, early mathematics education in the two countries in focus is considered a social practice. Gee (2014a) offers a toolkit for discourse analysis and in this study, relevant parts of that toolkit are used as a research method. Gee´s toolkit can be used to investigate big and small discourses: this study focuses on small discourses. Do the differences indicate two different discourses in mathematics education or can one and the same discourse in mathematics be assessed very differently?

References
Gee, J. P. (2014a). How to do discourse analysis: A toolkit: Routledge.Gee, J. P. (2014b). An introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method: Routledge.


mabg@du.se
Mari Hysing

Visual events in the classroom - teachers and students facing visuality in a global world

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The purpose of this study is to investigate visual events at two upper secondary schools when visual art teachers and students interact in the classroom using images, which the teachers have chosen. In a time of globality, when images are spread rapidly across the world, meanings are shared and created in different places and cultures. Both teachers and students are exposed to increasing amounts of visual technology and images in their everyday life and also use them together in school. The primary research question deals with what norms, values and identities that are expressed in the visual events. Data production is carried out by use of visual ethnography, which involves video filming and keeping field notes in classroom situations. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews are carried out with both teachers and students. The data is analyzed by using visual culture theory and discourse analysis. At the present point in time, material is produced and analysis of the material has started. The theoretical framing is based on the theory of visual culture, where an assumption is that the visual is interwoven with our identities, stories, lifestyles, cultures and societies. Images occur in and inspire our beliefs, technologies, texts and, not least, communication between humans. The visual events are furthermore considered from a perspective of power as images reveal power relations that exist in society. Expected conclusions deal with what kind of power relations, values, norms and identities that are expressed in the visual events. Conclusions also deal with what roles images, chosen by the teacher, play in visual events in classroom situations and how interaction in these visual events affects both students' and teachers' learning and identity processes.

References
Arvedsen, K., & Illeris, H. (2011). Visual Phenomena and Visual Events-Some reflections around the curriculum of visual culture pedagogy. Synnyt/Origins(2), 44-63. Bamford, A. (2006). The wow factor: Global research compendium on the impact of the arts in education. Berlin: Waxmann Verlag.Buhl, M., & Flensborg, I. (2011). Visuel Kultur Pædagogik. Köpenhamn: Hans Reitzels Forlag.Fors, V., & Bäckström, Å. (2015). Visuella metoder. Lund: Studentlitteratur.Illeris, H. (2009). Visual events and the friendly eye: modes of educating vision in new educational settings in Danish art galleries. Museums and Society, 7(1), 16-31. Illeris, H. (2012). Educations of vision: relational strategies in visual culture. Visualidades, 10(1), 99-127. Mirzoeff, N. (2009). An introduction to visual culture (second ed.). London: Routledge.Pink, S. (2013). Doing visual ethnography (third ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Rose, G. (2016). Visual methodologies: An introduction to researching with visual materials (fourth ed.). London: sage.Sturken, M., & Cartwright, L. (2018). Practices of looking: an introduction to visual culture (third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press Oxford.


Anette.Bagger@oru.se
Anette Bagger

Access and participation in assessment

CoAuthors

Elisabeth Raddock, elisabeth.raddock@umu.se

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Teachers in the special education classrooms are obliged to assess knowledge and give grades (SFS 2010:800). Student’s participation in, and access to, the assessment is central. In the case of students in need of support, Ahlberg (2013) shows how participation, communication and learning presuppose each other. The purpose of this study is to investigate how participation in, and access to, assessment are understood by teachers in the case of students with intellectual disabilities.A survey regarding assessment, access and participation was sent to all teachers who had students following the curriculum for learning disabilities (LD) in one municipality. Twelve of nineteen teachers answered. Results indicated that students participated in assessment situations mainly through self-assessment and matrices. To make assessment accessible various methods were used: communication aids, support from adults, conversations and peer-assessment. Helping students display their knowledge, and ascertaining if and how knowledge was displayed, was a challenge to teachers. Another challenge mentioned by the teachers was informing students about the results of their assessment in a manner appropriate to their individual communicative competence. Making students’ knowledge visible to students, teachers and parents is the primary challenge we have identified. There is a need for further research in order to articulate how the accessibility of the assessment situation may be a means for increasing student participation, and also how accessibility and participation are produced, and how they are affected by the practice of assessment.

References
ReferencesAhlberg, A. (2013). Specialpedagogik i ideologi, teori och praktik -att bygga broar.SFS (2010:800). Skollag. [Education Act]. Department of Education.Östlund, Daniel (2012), Deltagandets kontextuella villkor: fem träningsskoleklassers pedagogiska praktik. Doctoral thesis, Malmö: Malmö högskola.


eva.knekta@umu.se
Eva Knekta

The Role of Education in Promoting Change.  A case study in South Africa and Sweden

CoAuthors

Sylvan Blignaut, Mammusa Lekoa, Annika Manni, Lindelani Mnguni, Lena Zander

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The role of education and how education can support agency for change in the society has been a subject of debate for decades (Biesta, 2009; Cotti & Schiro, 2004; Schiro, 2008, Toom et. al, 2015; Torstensson & Brundrett, 2011). Both the South African and Swedish curriculum emphasize that education shall foster democratic students that actively participate in the society (Waghid, 2002, Hjelmér & Rosvall, 2017). However that the curriculum does not state explicitly how these values are to be translated into classroom practice and how it can be evaluated, which complicates effective implementation.The aim of this study is to explore the extent to which teachers support and contribute to education of learners as agents of change, to what extent learners percieve themselves as agents of change, and what strategies, if any, they have adopted to achieve it. The study is framed by UN Sustainable Development, especially Goal 4 (quality education) and Goal 16 (peace, justice and strong institutions).Semi-structured interviews with in total 25 teachers and 50 students in South Africa and Sweden will be performed during spring 2019 to probe participants’ views about important issues in the society, if they want to make an impact in order to improve those issues and how, if at all, education is currently used to promote agency for change regarding those isssues. Above the issues mentioned by the particiapants, special focus will be put on education for citizienship, inclusive education, and environmental issues.Preliminary results indicate a large diversity in issues in society that the students find important. A majority of the issues for which the students wanted to act for change were connected to the students’ current life situation or climate change. Students and teachers mention some educational practices used to put focus on the issues discussed. Few of these considered active participation and application of knowledge in order to achieve change in the society.

References
Biesta, G. (2009). Good education in an age of measurement: on the need to reconnect with the question of purpose in education. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Acc ountability, 21(1), 33-46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-008-9064-9Cotti, R., & Schiro, M. (2004). Connecting teacher beliefs to the use of children’s literature in the teaching of mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 7(4), 329-356.Hjelmér, C., & Rosvall, P. Å. (2017). Does social justice count?‘Lived democracy’in mathematicsclasses in diverse Swedish upper secondary programmes. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 49(2),216-234.Schiro,M. S. (2008). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage. Settlage.Toom A. , Pyhältö K. ,&  O’Connell Rust F. (2015) Teachers’professional agency in contradictory times, Teachers and Teaching, 21(6), 615-623, DOI: 10.1080/13540602.2015.1044334Torstensson G. & Brundrett M. (2011) The impact of HIV/AIDS on primary education in Botswana: educating children as agents of change, Education 3(13), 39:4, 395-413, DOI: 10.1080/03004271003727549 Waghid, Y. (2002). Knowledge production and higher education transformation in South Africa:Towards reflexivity in university teaching, research and community service. Higher Education,43, 457–488.


karin.bohman@umu.se
Karin Bohman

Discourses in Music Education in Swedish Upper Secondary School

CoAuthors

English

Abstract Summery

The doctoral research project which this abstract aims to present was started in September 2018. The aim of this research project is to investigate teachers’ and students’ perceptions of teaching and learning, in relation to the aims and purposes of the courses, in the core subjects of music and music theory. The empirical data will be collected via, or rather created in conjunction with, participant observations in classrooms, interviews with teachers and students as well as focus group conversations. The data will be analysed through the perspective of discourse analysis and statements concerning aims and purposes will be viewed as expressions of discourse. In addition to this, there will also be an analysis of policy documents such as the National Curriculum for the Upper Secondary School as well as individual schools course syllabus’ in the subjects of music and music theory.Main theoretical and methodological approach for this study is discourse theory, based on Foucault’s definition of discourse, where ”the term discourse can be defined as the group of statements that belong to a single system of formation” (Foucault, 1972:107). Bernstein’s (2000) concept of pedagogic discourse will in addition to this be used in relation to the school system. Since the study focuses particularly on perceptions concerning aims and purposes, the question of value and/or in relation to transmission (of knowledge) becomes important.I am, when writing this abstract, in the middle of analysing data from a pilot studie. The preliminary results points to teachers viewing musicianship as the main purpose of music education, particularly focusing on the so called practical aspects, the actual physical activity of playing or singing. Music theory is described as a tool for reaching a more comprehensive understanding of the music played, as well as a tool by which equality in the ensemble classroom can be achieved.

References
ReferencesBernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: theory, research, critique. London; Washington: Taylor & Francis.Foucault, M. (1972). The Archeology of Knowledge. Lund: Arkiv förlag.


annika.norlund.shaswar@umu.se
Annika Norlund Shaswar

Language resources and digital tools in basic literacy education in SFI

CoAuthors

Åsa Wedin

Swedish

Abstract Summery

In this presentation material is presented from a project aiming at developing educational practices that enhance language development among students in Swedish for Immigrants (SFI). Particular focus is in the project directed towards the use of digital tools and students’ everyday language practices. The study builds on a combination of cognitive theories of interaction (Long 1981; Swain 1985 1995) and socio cultural theory (Vygotsky 1934/1999, Cummins 2000). The study also includes learner strategies (Oxford 1990, Griffiths 2013). With Canagarajah (2018), we understand the teachers and students as human actors included in the negotiation of views. Thus our interest is directed towards the result of the interactions rather than formal correctness, while we are aware of the role that correctness may play in classrooms. Results will be presented regarding identification of patterns for classroom interaction that contribute to the pupils' language development and learning strategies. The material comes from an action research project with an ethnographic approach that was carried out on study paths 1 and 2 in two SFI schools. Material from course 1 B and 2 B will be used here. From 1 B and 2 B, material from teaching is presented that was based on students' own oral presentations with the intention of opening for interaction that approached natural and authentic everyday communication. The interaction patterns that arose challenged the pupils' linguistic competence in ways that stimulated negotiation of meaning in the form of longer interaction sequences. Through these sequences, the students practiced varied communication roles and linguistic functions. From 1 B, a study of connections between a student's learning strategies and the teacher's teaching is presented. In the material, memory strategies dominate, but social strategies and compensation strategies also occur. There are both conformities and differences between the student's and the teacher's strategies.

References
Canagarajah, A. S. (2018). The unit and focus of analysis in lingua franca English interactions: In search of a method. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(7), 805-824. DOI:10.1080/13670050.2018.1474850 Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire.  Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.Griffiths, C. (2013). The strategy factor in successful language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Long, M. H. (1981). Input, interaction and second-language acquisition.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 379, 259-278, DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1981.tb42014xOxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies. What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence. Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. I S. M.Gass, & C. G. Madden (Red.), Input in second language acquisition. (ss. 235-256). Rowley, Mass: Newbury House Publishers. Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. I G. Cook, & B. Seidhofer (Red.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics. (ss. 125-144). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Vygotskij, L. S. ([1934] 1999). Tänkande och språk. Göteborg: Daidalos


Anette.Bagger@oru.se
Anette Bagger

Early assessment in mathematics, the ethics in a practice close research approach

CoAuthors

Helena Vennberg, Umeå University

English

Abstract Summery

One of the latest reforms to increase the equity and quality in mathematics education is mandatory national assessment in Preschool-class. It is supposed to govern the action, focus and professional language of the pedagogues. In an earlier study of preparatory work, policy decisions and assessment material, we discovered that there is a risk for schoolification of the Preschool-class, through this reform. A second risk is that students could be locked into "levels" of achievement and a third risk lies in a potential narrowing down of the curriculum (Bagger, Björklund, Vennberg, Accepted). At the same time, earlier research show that early assessment can lead to positive development for students in need of support (Vennberg & Norqvist, 2018). Deriving from our initial study of national assessment in preschool class, we have planned for a follow up project with the aim to contribute to knowledge of and developing the practice about the preschool class teacher’s work with national assessment in mathematics. During the conference we will present and discuss ethical and methodological challenges in this project. More specifically, we want to discuss what is required of practice close approaches in these ethically demanding situations of vulnerability and assessment in mathematics with young students. A key issue is the opportunities for teachers and researchers to manage the information collected during the  national assessment and handling of sensitive data, how they jointly can contribute to the development and management of the knowledge that generated about students' opportunities to learn and to demonstrate their knowledge. And finally, in what way this might contribute to assessment and teaching in mathmatics continues to have its starting points in the unique assignment of the preschool-class.Keywords: early assessment, preschool-class, national assessment

References
Bagger, A., Björklund, L. & Vennberg, H. (accepted). The politics of early assessment in mathematics education. CERME11 in Utrecht, January 2019.Vennberg, H. & Norqvist, M. (2018). Counting on – long term effects of an early intervention program. In Bergqvist, E., Österholm, M., G, C & Sumpter, L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 4, (pp. 355-362). Umeå, Sweden: PME.


lorentz.edberg@umu.se
Lorentz Edberg

The school musical

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

ABSTRACT THE SCHOOL MUSICALThe two school musical theatre projects in this case study were carried out in 2011-2012 in Year 9 at two Swedish secondary schools, Annebäckskolan and Bäråskolan, as a part of the subject “Elevens val” (Student’s Elective). The purpose of the study was to analyse how pedagogy, power and control appeared in the projects, based on the following research questions: How can the influence of the local community and leisure discourses on education be understood through the two school musical theatre projects? What pedagogical codes appear in the projects and how do they relate to time and space? What power relations are produced and why? The study was conducted through participatory observations and interviews and dialogues with participating students and teachers. The analysis had a hermeneutical approach, and the theoretical starting points were Basil Bernstein's theory and concepts, such as recontextualisation, code, classification, framing, and singular, regional and generic discourses. These theories were supplemented by a space perspective based on David Harvey and his concept of the absolute, relative and relational space. The study showed that educational traditions and relations with the local community were of importance for the production of the school musical theatre discourses. The Annebäck project was characterised by teaching in relation to the pop and rock music and theatre discourse of the municipal youth centre and a local aerobics and dance discourse. These relations provided the prerequisites for a school musical theatre project with an integrated code, open to most of the students in Year 9. The Bärå project had a collection code and was characterised by teaching related to the school’s music class, as well as to the municipal music school discourse and a local theatre and dance discourse. These relations provided the prerequisites for a project mainly open to students in the school’s music class, or to students who had

References
ReferenserBernstein, Basil (1974). Class Codes and Control Volume 1. Towards aSociology of Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Bernstein, Basil (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity.London: Routledge.Bernstein, Basil & Lundgren, Ulf P. (1983). Makt, kontroll ochpedagogik. Lund: Studentlitteratur.Harvey, David (1973). Social justice and the city. London: EdwardArnold Publishers.18 6Harvey, David (2006). Den globala kapitalismens rum. På väg mot enteori om ojämn geografisk utveckling. Hägersten: Tankekraft förlag.


maria.norqvist@umu.se
Maria Norqvist

Swedish school-age educare and the new part in the curriculum

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Swedish school-age educare is a comprehensive practice for children in the ages 6 to 12, that is governed by the same curriculum as the compulsory school. The curriculum was revised in 2016 with a new part that focused the practice in school-age educare. This paper aims to explore which issues and areas that have been the subject of discussion during the formulation and referral process preceding the introduction of the revised curriculum.The paper is part of a doctoral project and theoretically inspired by policy enactment (Ball, 2012). A policy text is not simply implemented into practice, but translated from text in to practice in a process related to the history and context of the practice including the resources available. Local actors have to navigate and reinterpret among different policies and other requirements and demands. They are not only implementers of policies, but are actively taking part in the process to put the policy into practice (Ball, 2012).The  data consist of documents created during the formulation process. In this process different interest groups (e.g., municipalities, universities, and school-age educare teachers) were invited to comment on drafts of the curriculum text. The documents comprise 320 pages. A content analysis (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004) resulted in three categories of core content; ‘teaching’, ‘the task of school-age educare’ and ‘play’.A preliminary conclusion is that the actors advocated that the curriculum text should use concepts derived from the social pedagogical tradition, where the school-age educare originates, rather than the tradition where the compulsory school derives from.

References
Ball, S. J. (2012). How schools do policy : policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge.Graneheim, & Lundman. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105–112.


ulf.p.lundstrom@umu.se
Ulf Lundström

New teachers’ construction of professional identities in a confusing policy environment

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

New teachers work in an environment characterized by global policy trends, intensive national education reforms, and competing discourses of teacher professionalism (Gewirtz et al. 2009, Lundström 2015, Nilsson Lindström & Beach 2015). This study examines new Swedish teachers’ experiences of constructing professional identities in such a context: In what way is the teacher education valuable/ insufficient? How was the induction support at the first workplace? Which factors influence the teaching? The analysis of professional identity is broadly framed by an enactment perspective (Ball et al. 2012). Professional identity is constructed as a result of interaction between teachers’ personal experiences and their everyday social, cultural and institutional environment (Day et al. 2006). The empiric material emanates from semi-structured interviews with 20 new teachers (year 7 – 9), who teach various subjects. Interviews are relevant to use when professional identity is in focus as (Watson 2006). The preliminary findings indicate a ‘sink or swim’ situation because of shortcomings of the teacher education and the induction support. Colleagues are often the only saviors in that situation. The study confirms previous findings about the theory/practice divide (Bainbridge 2011). Shulman’s (2004) categories of knowledge is used in the analysis of the knowledge base.  Strengths/weaknesses vary considerably between the categories. Teaching practice is regarded as the most fruitful part of the education. The national curriculum and the subject teacher teams are the most influential factors for the contents of the teaching. However, focus is primarily on the “core content”, which promotes a reduced curriculum - a devaluation of the teacher profession (Lundström 2017). The concrete everyday demands seem to make it difficult for the new teachers to navigate among national policy changes and to gain an overview of macro and meso level policies.

References
Bainbridge, A. (2011) Beginning teaching: the theory/practice divide. Cliopsy, 6. pp. 25-32. Ball, Stephen P., Maguire, Meg. & Braun, Anette (2012). How Schools do Policy. Policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge. Day, Christopher; Kington, Alison; Stobart, Gordon & Sammons, Pam (2006). The personal and professional selves of teachers: stable and unstable identities. In British Educational Research Journal, 32, (4), 601-616 Gewirtz et al. (2009). Changing Teacher Professionalism. International trends, challenges and ways forward. London & New York: Routledge Lundström, Ulf (2015). Teacher autonomy in the era of New Public Management. Nordic Journal of Studies in Education Policy, 1(2), 73-85Lundström, Ulf (2017) Att mäta det vi värderar eller värdera det vi kan mäta? Resultatindikatorer som grund för skolval. Utbildning & Demokrati 26(1), 43-66Nilsson Lindström, Margareta & Dennis Beach, Dennis (2015) Changes in teacher education in Sweden in the neo-liberal education age: Toward an occupation in itself or a profession for itself? Education Inquiry, 6(3): 241-258Resultatindikatorer som grund för skolval. Utbildning & Demokrati 26(1), 43-66Shulman, L. (2004). The Wisdom of Practice. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass Watson, C. (2006). Narratives of Practice and the construction of identity in teaching. Teachers and teaching: theory and practice, 12 (5), 509-526.


jonna.linde@umu.se
Jonna Linde

”High-stakes counselling” in Sweden – career guidance and counselling with asylum seeking students

CoAuthors

Joakim Lindgren (Umeå Universitet) and Åsa Sundelin (Stockholms Universitet)

Swedish

Abstract Summery

In Sweden, as in other Nordic countries, education and work are seen as important in the realisation of social goals as equal opportunities, community fellowship and social inclusion. Thus, school teachers and career counsellors are considered as important facilitators towards career development. In the wake of the global refugee crisis in 2015-2016 Sweden received more immigrants per capita than any other European country (Karlsdóttir 2018) with profound effects on career guidance and counselling in upper secondary school. For young asylum-seeking students the pressure to complete upper secondary education is dramatic and stakes are very high. Most of them have dramatic experiences from war, terror and poverty (Menjívar and Perreira 2019). Their lives are characterized by anxiety, uncertainty and poor mental health (Kunskapscentrum för ensamkommande barn 2018). The asylum seeking students’ path is clearly pointed out by structural limitations that clashes with the policy ideals regarding career development in Sweden. Overall, the legal context is highly complex and municipalities have interpreted the amendment differently. From a career counselling perspective, the counselling process becomes intertwined with migration legislations. This abstract highlights and analyse a changed professional context for career counsellors working with asylum seeking students – what we term “high-stakes counselling” where the career counselling process is intertwined with migration regulations. Based on ethnographic fieldwork and Hodkinson & Sparkes (1997) theory the analysis points to the complexity and hard emotional pressure on the career counsellors as their work may implicate a matter of “life and death” for the young refugees. Career counsellors have to adapt to regulations that narrows their work for expansion of horizon for action and social inclusion substantially.Keywords: refugees, career counselling, social justice

References
Hodkinson, P., Sparkes, Andrew C. (1997). "Careership: a sociological theory of career decision making." British Journal of Sociology of Education 18(1): 29-44.Karlsdóttir, A., Norlén, G., Rispling, L. and Randall, L. (Eds). (2018). State of the Nordic Region 2018 Immigration and integration edition.   Kunskapscentrum för ensamkommande barn (2018). "Kommunernas beredskap – unga som fåruppehållstillstånd enligt den nya gymnasielagen." Socialstyrelsen.                             Menjívar, C. and Perreira K. M. (2019). "Undocumented and unaccompanied: children of migration in the European Union and the United States." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45(2): 197-217.


eva.marell-olsson@umu.se
Eva Mårell-Olsson

The use of Augmented Reality Technology in Chemistry Teaching

CoAuthors

Karolina Broman

Swedish

Abstract Summery

PurposeTraditionally in chemistry teaching, molecules are visualized on paper or on a whiteboard/screen, i.e. the molecule is drawn in 2D. However, one basic problem many students are struggling with in basic organic chemistry is the conceptual transition from 2D to 3D, and research has shown that spatial thinking is very important for the understanding of chemistry [1][2]. This presentation reports on a study exploring how university students are perceiving the use of augmented reality technology (AR) in chemistry teaching. More specifically the aim is to explore and understand what opportunities and challenges students perceive when using AR-technology for enhancing their transition from a 2D representation of a molecule to the 3D structure visualised by AR-glasses. MethodThe study was conducted during the spring of 2019 where a group of  university students were able to see the 3D structure of a nicotine molecule by using AR-glasses. The empirical material is based on discussions during the test and 14 surveys which the students answered anonymously afterwards. Theoretical framingDesign-based methods were used in the study [3] for exploring the possibilities as well as the challenges students meet when using, for them, such a new emerging technology as AR. For encoding the collected material, thematic analysis [4] was used for identifying key themes and emerging patterns. Conclusions The first preliminary findings illustrate both possibilities and challenges when using AR-technology in chemistry teaching. For example, the students expressed an immersive experience and the 3D molecule was perceived as a very real object in the room, and in addition, felt that the amount of information was larger compared to 2D. The challenges concern quite a narrow field of view of the AR-glasses, and the students would like to have several different molecules to be visualized at the same time so as to be able to compare them with how they actually are represented in 3D.

References
References[1] Ferk, V. & Yrtacnik, M. (2003). Students' Understanding of Molecular Structure Representations. International Journal of Science Educucation, 25 (10), 1227–1245.[2] Harle, M., & Towns, M. (2010). A review of spatial ability literature, its connection to chemistry, and implications for instruction. Journal of Chemical Education, 88(3), 351–360.[3] Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational technology research and development, 53(4), 5–23.[4] Ely, M. (1991). Doing Qualitative Research. London: Falmer Press.


eva.marell-olsson@umu.se
Eva Mårell-Olsson

Gamification as a teaching strategy – teachers’ readiness for gamified teaching designs

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

PurposeThis presentation reports on a study exploring teachers’ readiness to design gamified teaching activities with the use of contemporary and emerging technologies in K-12 education in Sweden. More specifically, the aim was to explore and understand what opportunities and challenges teachers perceive and express by gamified teaching designs. MethodThe study was conducted between 2014-2018 and included four sub-studies where four groups of university students were given the task to design a gamified teaching activity for school students in combination with the use of digital technologies such as laptops, media tablets and smart glasses. The empirical material is based on observations during the school tests and interviews afterwards with the participating school teachers. Theoretical framingThe theoretical framework is based on activity theory where motives, goals, actions and operations are key starting points (Leontiev, 1986). Within activity theory it is of importance to study the role that an artefact or a tool plays in everyday life (Nardi, 1996). Using Activity Theory as a theoretical framework helps to make sense of a context, and more specifically, the interplay between social relations, materials, tools, and expressed motives within the activity system (Nardi, 1996). Conclusions The findings illustrate two emerging themes concerning 1) fostering motivation and collaboration and 2) a pedagogical balance is needed to achieve deeper learning. The school students enjoyed the gamified activities a lot and this fostered their motivation for schoolwork and collaboration. The teachers described it as a catalyst for motivating and engaging school students in schoolwork while at the same time acquiring knowledge. However the challenges they perceive primarily concern time and knowledge about how to design for a pedagogical balance between fun elements in relation to elements that triggers the school students’ knowledge acquisition and learning processes.

References
ReferencesLeontiev, A. N. (1986). Verksamhet, medvetande, personlighet: Tätigkeit, Bewusstsein, Persönlichkeit = Activity, consciousness, personality = Activite, conscience, personnalite. Moskva: Progress. Nardi, B., Editor. (1996). Context and Consciousness: Activity Theory and Human-Computer Interaction. Cambridge: MIT Press.


anna.bylund@liu.se
Anna Martín Bylund

Transnational Families’ Digital Online Calling: Re-inventing language through a transgressive space

CoAuthors

Linnea Stenliden

Swedish

Abstract Summery

In today’s globalized world, the ongoing and increasing mobility of people effect processes of socio-emotional relations, where also media technology plays a part in these processes, shaping ways of communicating and transforming mundane practices of language. Knowledge, on the differentiating, innovative traits of such local language practice, is essential for discussions of the diversity of experiences with multilingualism within transnational families (Madianou & Miller, 2012). Hence, the aim of this paper is to contribute to a further understanding on the entangled interaction of language/languaging, media technology and transnational migration. The article studies the situation of online calling in transnational families, as a means of exploring how the interaction in such situations responds to distance as well as if and how proximity may be achieved. Language within these families is viewed as a dynamic and transformative phenomenon and it is studied rhizomatically as constantly negotiated in both social (emotional) as well as material (digital) relations and experiences. Data consists of video-recordings and additional data from three different families’ mundane online calls with their relatives residing in another country. The analytical work is inspired by moment analysis (Wei, 2011) and employs Deleuze & Guattari’s (1987) concepts from of rhizome and sense. The results suggest online calling between distant family members revolves as a transgressive space, where interaction is found as a response to distance and proximity. The role of media technology is thus discussed in relation to the ‘interactive border work’ by which migrated families struggle in bridging geographical, linguistic and emotional distances. We see these attempts as a growing part of everyday practices of language by which many children in the world grow up and learn, and by which language is continuously reinvented.

References
Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus : capitalism and schizophrenia: London : Continuum, 2004.Madianou, M. & Miller, D. (2012). Migration and new media: transnational families and polymedia. Abingdon: Routledge.Wei, L. (2011). Moment Analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain, Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 1222-1235. doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035.

per-ake.rosvall@umu.se
Åke Rosvall

Critical education in vocational subjects? Civic knowledge in vocational programmes, policy documents and classroom practice

CoAuthors

Kristina Ledman, Mattias Nylund, Maria Rönnlund

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Most research on civic education is in the general subjects, often focusing on social science. Research in vocational education and training (VET) programmes in upper secondary school is no exception. This project aims to develop an understanding of how education towards critical thinking is made available for the vocational students in the work oriented courses of VET. The methodology rests on policy ethnography in order to generate knowledge concerning (i) the extent and nature of the learning processes that can be characterized as civic education in VET programmes (ii) what actors are involved in these activities (iii) how young people acquire and value the civic educative processes, and (iv) to what extent and why (i) and (iii) vary between programme and school context. The projects acknowledges variables as social background, gender and knowledge traditions through the sample and choice of theory (Bernstein, 2000; Connell, 1987). Thus, we seek to investigate the occurrences of a content that enables the students to become active and autonomous subjects with means to influence of their life, work-place and society. The project relies on a selective ethnographic model where the pedagogic practice is investigated through classroom observations and interviews with students and teachers in three schools and three vocational programmes (six classes), and policy investigated thought analysis of the curriculum guidelines governing these programmes. The programmes are selected due to gender since it well known that traditional gender patterns steers students choices to vocational programmes and the gender dominance of a sex seems to develop quite different pedagogic practices, which might influence the content of their civic education. It is of great importance to generate knowledge of the possibilities for VET students to access and acquire critical thinking in the work-oriented content that has come to increasingly dominate the curriculum for VET.

References
Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Connell, R., W. (1987). Gender and Power. Stanford: Stanford university press.


linda.ronnberg@umu.se
Linda Rönnberg

Educational work in global times: Swedish free school companies on international export

CoAuthors

Nafsika Alexiadou, Sara Carlbaum, Ann-Sofie Holm and Lisbeth Lundahl

English

Abstract Summery

Enabled by policies of school choice and free school legislation, a national Swedish education industry has emerged, flourished, and lately also displayed increasing international ambitions. During the last decade, Swedish free school companies have started to set up international operations based on the national business models and pedagogical ideas. At present, the three largest Swedish for-profit free school actors are operating across Europe, Asia and the Middle East (Rönnberg, 2019). This presentation is based on research from a recently started VR-project aiming to map, explore and analyse the international establishment and work of Swedish free school companies in the Global Education Industry. This presentation aims to a) describe some of the main Swedish school companies and their international operations and b) discuss how particular ideas of educational work and schooling, including the national framing of such ideas, are represented by the Swedish companies in their operations abroad.  Our analytical framework emphasise the fluidity, mobility and circulation of policy and its actors and highlight the role played by commercial interests in these processes (Verger, et al., 2016; Au and Ferrare, 2015; Ball, 2012; Steiner-Khamsi, 2016; Ozga and Jones, 2006). Empirically, we draw on data from company websites, marketing materials and curricular documents, as well as official Swedish registers and international media reporting. Our findings illustrate how the processes of exporting Swedish education entail certain processes of circulation, learning and adaption, and how particular features (and not others) become highlighted as Swedish education businesses move from the national to the global domain. We argue that our research provide a hitherto under-researched perspective on the transformation educational work in global times by analysing some of the ways in which national-international interactions are prompted by commercial actors and rationales.

References
Au, W. & Ferrare, J. J. (Eds.) (2015). Mapping corporate education reform: power and policy networks in the neoliberal state. London: Routledge.Ball, S. J. (2012). Global Education Inc.: New policy networks and the neo-liberal imaginary. London: RoutledgeSteiner-Khamsi, G. (2016). New Directions in Policy Borrowing Research. Asia Pacific Education Review 17(3), 381–390.Ozga, J. & Jones, R. (2006). Travelling and embedded policy: the case of knowledge transfer. Journal of Education Policy 21(1), 1-17.Rönnberg, L. (2019). Swedish school companies going global. In M. Dahlstedt & A. Fejes (Eds.) Neoliberalism and market forces in education: Lessons from Sweden. London: Routledge (pp. 183-196).Verger, A., Lubienski, C & Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2016). The Emergence and structuring of the Global Education Industry. Towards an analytical framework. In Verger, A, Lubienski, C & Steiner-Khamsi, G. (Eds.) World Yearbook of Education 2016: The Global Education Industry. New York: Routledge.


nafsika.alexiadou@umu.se
Nafsika Alexiadou

Transcending borders in higher education: Internationalisation policies in Sweden

CoAuthors

Linda Rönnberg, linda.ronnberg@umu.se

English

Abstract Summery

The presentation focuses on higher education internationalisation policies in Sweden, a country that has been proactive in creating internationalisation policy frameworks for universities and invested resources to make it operational (Christensen et al., 2014). We map policy developments in this area since the early 2000s, with the aim to analyse the evolving focus, rationales and justifications for internationalisation of higher education. We approach internationalisation as a policy goal that is an expression of a Swedish-specific response to global trends in the HE sector. We analyse the aspects of internationalisation that the policy documents identify as important; the main rationales provided for these within the context of wider national developments in higher education policy to highlight shifts and continuities from the early 2000s to the 2018 national internationalisation strategy proposal.Theoretically we engage with two sets of analytical perspectives that explore (a) how national policies respond to international mobile ideas such as internationalsation and (b) how policy ideas interact with existing national and institutional traditions of policy and practice, (Steiner-Khamsi & Waldow, 2012; Gornitzka & Langfeldt, 2008; Mahoney & Thelen, 2010).Our methodology entails a critical examination of internationalisation policies and rationales and the empirical part of our article consists of an analysis of Swedish policy documents on higher education and on internationalization. We focus primarily on the period post-2005 which coincides with the more systematic and intense Swedish internationalisation strategies, but we also draw on other studies that have analysed Swedish Commission and Official reports in the period leading to 2005 (Forstorp & Mellström, 2018).We find that the same objectives, definitions and rationales for internationalization are present over the last 15 years, but with a different emphasis, intensity and implementation force.

References
Christensen, T., Gornitzka, Å. & Maassen, P. 2014. Global pressures and national cultures. A Nordic university template?. Pp.30-52. In P. Mattei (ed). University Adaptation in Difficult Economic Times. Oxford Scholarship Online.Forstorp, P-A. & Mellström, U. 2018. Higher Education, Globalization and Eduscapes. Palgrave Macmillan.Gornitzka, Å. & Langfeldt, L. 2008. The internationalisation of national knowledge policies. Promoting interests, following rules, or learning from abroad? In, Å. Gorntizka & L. Langfeldt (eds) Borderless Knowledge. Understanding the ‘New’ Internationalisation of Research and Higher Education in Norway. Pp.141-169. Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Mahoney, J., Thelen, K. 2010. A theory of gradual institutional change. In, J. Mahoney & K. Thelen (eds) Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power. Pp.1-36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Steiner-Khamsi, G. Waldow, F. (eds) 2012. World Yearbook of Education: Policy Borrowing and Lending in Education. London: Routledge.


nafsika.alexiadou@umu.se
Nafsika Alexiadou

Framing education policies and transitions of Roma students in Europe

CoAuthors

English

Abstract Summery

The aim of this presentation is to analyse the contexts and conditions for successful education transitions for the Roma minority in Europe. Policies have failed to ensure Roma education equality, even though some progress is visible (FRA 2018). The research examines transitions from two perspectives: A policy and governance perspective arising from the EU and the Fundamental Rights Agency; and, NGOs that support Roma education. Second, it includes an analysis of the experiences of Roma students in the Central European University in Hungary. The research addresses the following questions:How do policy and NGO actors view the governance of Roma inclusion within EU education policy? What are the barriers they identify in improving education progression of Roma students? How do successful Roma students describe the conditions and circumstances necessary for schooling success and transition to university? The study combines a governance perspective in the analysis of policy with a biographical perspective (Walther et al. 2015) whereby students describe their education trajectories, and reflect on their experiences of family, school, support, and decision making in negotiating different levels of education participation (Kende 2007). Using a combination of policy analysis and interviews we examine the key contexts that frame education policies and create the necessary conditions for education transitions. The methodological approach combines an analysis of the active interpretation and mediation of policies by practitioners and Roma students. The research data consists of documentary materials and 33 interviews with policy makers, academics & students.  The research identifies problems with EU policy frameworks and tensions between rhetoric and commitments at national, transnational, and local levels. The research also captures the lived reality of students who managed transitions with success (Brüggemann & D’Arcy 2017).

References
Brüggemann, C. & D’Arcy, K. 2017. Contexts that discriminate: international perspectives on the education of Roma students. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20:5, 575-578.Kende, A. 2007. “Success stories? Roma university students overcoming social exclusion in Hungary”. In H. Colley (ed) Social Inclusion for Young People: Breaking down the Barriers. Pp: 133–144. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.FRA, 2018. Transition from Education to Employment of Young Roma in 9 Member States. Vienna: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Richardson, J. 2015. “The EU as a policy-making state. A policy system like any other?”. In, J. Richardson, S. Mazey (eds) European Union-Power and Policy Making. Pp.3-32. London: Routledge. Walther, A., Parreira do Amaral, M., Cuconato, M. & Dale, R. 2015. Governance of Educational Trajectories in Europe. Bloomsbury Academic.


frida.marklund@umu.se
Frida Marklund

Pictures that tell stories

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

This study examines how Visual arts education in secondary school creates conditions for storytelling picture production, and which norms and values that thereby are constructed and reproduced. Storytelling in Visual arts is meant to give students opportunity to explore their own experiences and opinions via pictures that they produce themselves (Skolverket, 2011a). This is highlighted as something that can promote self-expression, identity development etcetera (Skolverket 2011b). However, a starting point for my ongoing research is that storytelling is never value neutral and that the stories that students produce are dependent upon social and cultural codes, which are embedded within the educational context. The study is based on interviews, observations, documents and students’ pictures which I analyse using picture semiotics (Sonesson, 1992) and Bernsteins (2000) concepts of classification, framing and recontextualization. I explore how different power structures legitimize and reproduce certain knowledge and exclude other, which in turn influence the socialization and assessment of students, and therefore also their picture production. One pattern that emerges in the study is how Visual arts education is affected by a global trend of school marketization, measurement and an utilitarian discourse in education.

References
Bernstein (2000). Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, research critique. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.Skolverket (2011a). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011. Stockholm: Skolverket.Skolverket (2011b). Kommentarmaterial till kursplanen i bild. Stockholm: Fritzes.Sonesson (1992). Bildbetydelser: Introduktion till bildsemiotik som vetenskap. Lund: Studentlitteratur.


hanna.ahrenby@umu.se
Hanna Ahrenby

Enactment of the Fundamental Values in Art Education

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

This research deals with the enactment of the fundamental Values in visual art education in Swedish secondary school, in order to see what factors do influence the enactment.  According to the curriculum, education is meant to foster democratic values and establish human rights and the fundamental values shall permeate all education in school. The study is based on classroom observations, video-recordings of the observed art lessons, and interviews with art teachers and pupils. The study is conducted at three different schools in different cities. The theoretical point of departure is Ball et. al. (2012) theory of curriculum enactment. The study shows that the enactment is influenced by the specific context at each school and that teacher and student co-produce the curriculum event.

References
Ball, S.J., Maguire, M., Braun, A., Hoskins, K. and Perryman, J. 2012. How schools do policy?: policy enactments in secondary schools. London [u.a.: Routledge.


per.lindqvist@lnu.se
Per Lindqvist

Förhandlingar om ”dirty work” - en studie om introduktionen av lärarassistenter i den svenska skolan.

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Trycket på svenska lärare är högt.  Många lärare upplever en stress och press i sitt yrke och en brist på tid att utföra sina arbetsuppgifter (Sveriges företagshälsor, 2016). På toppen av detta ser vi hur en ökad lärarbrist sprider sig på skolorna. Skilda initiativ tas nu för att lärare ska kunna fokusera på "kärnuppdraget". Under senare år har införandet av avlastande tjänster, s.k. lärarassistenter, förts fram som en lösning på problemet. Det verkar däremot oklart vad assistenterna ska göra. Innehållet i avlastningen beskrivs på olika sätt av olika aktörer, med olika idéer om skolan och lärararbetet (se t.ex. DN, 2016). I skolverksamheten kan vi se att idéerna översätts på olika sätt, där uppfattningar om vad som är den rena kärnan i lärararbetet och vad framstår som ”dirty work” (Hasenfeld, 1983) kan skilja sig åt.Introduktionen av lärarassistenter kan ses som ett försök till intern stratifiering av läraryrket, där arbetet delas upp och där delar av arbetet lämnas över till andra yrkesgrupper (Abbott, 1988). När lärarassistenter etableras i den svenska skolan kommer också skolorganisationens ekologi att rubbas. Professionella rörelser uppstår och professionella domäner förhandlas, förskjuts och fördelas. I dessa rörelser är det inte alltid solklart att ett till synes tydliggörande av läraryrkets kärna samt en nyintroducerad arbetsspecialisering kan betraktas som sätt att förstärka läraryrkets professionella status. Introduktionen av nya yrkesgrupper kan lika gärna uppfattas som ett hot mot det professionella.I presentationen beskrivs och problematiseras fenomenet med avlastande tjänster i skolan. Med grund i resultat från en pågående studie, finansierad av Forte, ges svar på frågor som: Hur utbrett är det? Vilka idéer vilar det på? Vilka föreställningar av önskvärda avgränsningar mellan professionella domäner beskrivs av lärarna själva? Hur ser processerna ut där nya avlastande yrkesgrupper introduceras på skolorna? Kan införandet förväntas att ske harmoniskt

References
Abbott, A. (1988). The system of professions. An essay on the division of expert labour. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.DN (2016). Anställ fler yrkeskategorier för att klara lärarbristen. DN Debatt, 2016-01-26Hasenfeld, Y. (1983). Human service organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Sveriges företagshälsor (2014). Jobbhälsobarometern, Delrapport 2014:1


veronica.sulau@gu.se
Veronica Sülau

What is happening in the collegial learning practice?

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

The overall aim of the study is to create an understanding of the significance of the site in the implementation and the result of a professional development programme. Another aim is to investigate how the participants shape and form collegial learning practice, how their actions can be explained and what consequences these actions have for the individual and collegial learning.The study is designed as a case study, the case being an independent school company with four schools in four Swedish municipalities. All mathematics teachers at the four schools are participating in a national professional development program based on collegial learning, during two years. Data has been collected during three years and consists of audio recordings and observations of collegial conversations, documentation from collegial meetings and teachers' individual reflections.The theory of practice architectures (Kemmis & Grootenboer, 2008) is used as a theoretical as well as a methodological and analytical tool to study teachers' collegial learning practices, how they relate to local and national contexts and how these enable and constrain the professional development in terms of individual and collegial learning. Through the analysis, specific arrangements that shape and prefigure the professional development practice are identified, but also how this practice is shaped by the participants.The results show that the professional development practice is held in place and formed by practice architectures that are related to the school company as well as to the professional development program. The results also show that the participants in the collegial learning practices act in different ways that enable individual and collegial learning. These actions can be related to the practice architectures of the specific site where the professional development practice unfolds.

References
Kemmis, S., & Grootenboer, P. (2008). Situating praxis in practice. I S. Kemmis & T. J. Smith (Eds.), Enabling Praxis: Challenges for Education (s. 37-62). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.


annica.lofdahl@kau.se
Annica Löfdahl Hultman

Att bli förskollärare – utmaningar, progression, stoffträngsel i förskollärarutbildningen

CoAuthors

Katarina Ribaeus

Swedish

Abstract Summery

För att utveckla hög kvalitet i förskollärarutbildningen i en demokratiskt utmanande tid måste lärarutbildningen förbereda studenterna för att kunna hantera olika pedagogiska situationer och värdekonflikter. I ett projekt om lärarstudenters professionsutveckling har forskare och studenter träffats en gång i veckan med syfte att bidra till en stärkt forskningsanknytning av förskollärarutbildningen. Genom att följa dessa studenters lärartillblivelse under 3, 5 år fokuseras handlingsberedskap. Teoretiskt innebär det att vi utgår från Teacher Agency(TA) (Biesta et al 2015). Kortfattat betyder det att vi antar ett perspektiv där studenternas bakgrunder och tidigare erfarenheter, framtidsvisioner, liksom den utbildning, de möten och händelser som sker på såväl universitetet som VFU-platserna bidrar till att forma dem i sin blivande lärarroll. Data som presenteras här bygger på innehåll i  de samtal som förts mellan forskare och studenter under de första två åren. Syftet med vår presentation är att lyfta fram ett studentperspektiv på sin lärarutbildning.Forskningsfrågorna är: vilka utmaningar möter studenterna, hur upplever de sin progression och hur relaterar detta till innehållet i utbildningen?Våra resultat visar hur lärarstuderande använder sina egna och andras erfarenheter i diskussioner om hur man agerar i olika hypotetiska eller verkliga situationer. Men om studenternas erfarenheter inte tas tillvara inom lärarutbildningen kan vi fråga oss vad som kommer att hända med vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet. Är det en risk att deras yrkeskunskaper kommer att baseras på "grund vetenskap och berövade och bedrövade erfarenheter?" Resultaten diskuteras i relation till vilka framtida utmaningar lärarutbildningarna står inför.

References
Biesta, Priestly & Robinsson (2015).Teacher Agency. An ecological approach. London: Bloomsbury


oleg.popov@umu.se
Oleg Popov

The concept of proven experience as a tool for understanding, developing and generalising teachers’ pedagogical work

CoAuthors

Swedish

Abstract Summery

This theoretical paper elaborates on the concept of “proven experience” (beprövad erfarenhet) that recently came into focus within the Swedish educational system. Based on a systematic study of international research literature it is argued that proven experience can be interpreted as a combination of the terms “evidence based teaching” and “teacher professional inquiry”, which are broadly used in English language educational discourse.A four level theoretical model is suggested for interpreting and instrumentalising the term proven experience in education. The model is based on the inverted version of Miller’s (1990) model, which was used for the analysis of practical knowledge in medical education. The suggested model correlates ontologically with historical forms of knowledge genesis starting with instrumental knowledge and culminating in theoretical knowledge. Josefson (2005) defined the concept of proven experience as: “experience critically proven through theoretical reflection”. This definition appears to better correspond to the suggested model than the interpretations of the concept provided by the Swedish National Education Agency (Skolverket, 2012).The provided theoretical model for analysing proven experience could be used as a tool for understanding and generalising teaching experience at different educational levels.

References
Josefson, I. (2005). Vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet. I: Carlgren, I. (red.). Forskning av denna världen. 2, om teorins roll i praxisnära forskning. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.Miller, G.E. (1990). The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med. 1990 Sep., 65(9 Suppl). S63-67.Skolverket. (2012). Promemoria om vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet. (dnr 00-2012:1700).


anna.uden@gu.se
Anna Udén

Student Teachers’ Understanding of Theory in Practice – An Inclusive Perspective

CoAuthors

Margaretha Häggströmmargareta.haggstrom@gu.se

Swedish

Abstract Summery

IntroductionThe widening participating in higher education has put new demands on courses and teaching lectures. Students are in various ways a more diverse group than earlier with diverse background socially and culturally, thus their own experiences of school and teaching methods may differ (Häggström & Udén, 2018). This presentation addresses the importance of an inclusive perspective on higher education in general and in teacher education in particular. PurposeThe purpose is to elucidate student teachers’ understanding of pedagogical theories and the use of their understanding in the school-place training.Theoretical framingWe build this presentation on scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976) and its focus on didactic competence. Intentional didactic planning include carefully and well-reasoned educationally strategy, integrating the didactic questions what, how and why. Scaffolding may be monitored by an acquainted teacher who provides supervision during the learning process (Brush & Saye, 2002), hence act as an “expert” responsible of helping students achieving deeper understanding (Holton & Clarke, 2006), through prepared instructions and constructive feedback and dialogues (Simons & Klein). During the learning process, students need to be actively engaged.MethodThis presentation builds on a study conducted within teacher education in Gothenburg. It includes one campus-based course and one school-based course, thus the interaction between theory and practice. The study embraces focus group interviews and written texts from course assignments. This design integrates an individual perspective as well as a collective perspective. Focus group interviews were chosen in order to create active and dynamic discussions that allows for several views and experiences (Halkier, 2010; Wibeck, 2010).Expected ConclusionWe expect to gain knowledge about how student teachers, in their practical work, facilitate teaching and learning situations based on theo

References
ReferencesBrush, T. & Saye, J. (2002). A summary of research Exploring Hard and Soft Scaffolding for  Teachers and Students Using Multimedia Supported Learning Environment. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning, vol 1, No 2, p. 1-12.Bruner, J. (2002). Kulturens väv. Utbildning i kulturpsykologisk belysning. Göteborg:    Daidalos.Halkier, B. (2010). Focus groups as social enactments: integrating interaction and content in the analysis of focus group data. Qualitative Research, vol 10 (1), p. 71-89.Holton, D. & Clark, D. (2006). Scaffolding and metacognition. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, vol 37, No 2, p. 127-143. Häggström, M. & Udén, A. (2018). Praxisteori i kölvattnet av breddad rekrytering: Scaffoldingmodell för lärarstudenter som stöd för att förstå sambandet mellan teoretiska perspektiv och praktisk skolverksamhet. [Practice theory in the wake of widening participation: Using a scaffolding model as a support for understanding the link between theoretical perspectives and practical activities in teacher education]. Acta Didactica Norge, vol 12, no 1, p. 1-19.Simons, K. & Klein, J. (2007). The impact of scaffolding and student achievement levels in a problem-based learning environment. Instructional Science, vol 35, No 1, p. 41-72.Wibeck, V. (2010). Fokusgrupper: om fokuserade gruppintervjuer som undersökningsmetod [Focus groups: Focused group interviews as research method]. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Wood, D., Bruner, J. & Ross, G. (1976). The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89–100.


margareta.haggstrom@gu.se
Margaretha Häggström

Democratic pedagogy: Intertwinement of Theory and Practice in Higher Education

CoAuthors

Anna Udén, anna.uden@gu.se

Swedish

Abstract Summery

Today’s students are in many respects a more heterogeneous group than in the past, according to study experience and social background. In a report from Swedish Higher Education Authority (2009), a majority of the University teachers/lectures estimate that students of today are less well educated while entering higher education. There are significant differences between high-performance students and low-performance students. The entry requirements for teacher education programs – and other – have been reduced (ibid). Altogether, this calls for a deliberate pedagogy guided by principles for inclusive education.AimThis study is an attempt to investigate the relationship between a campus-based course and a practice-based course in teacher education. The goal is to study if the campus-based theoretical content has an impact on student teachers’ own teaching and learning design at their trainee school. Theoretical frameworkThe study is based on theories that underpin social equality and pedagogical equilibrium in relation to an egalitarian education, thus a holistic and integrating approach to education. Such an approach is interested in overcoming the issues associated with the theory and practice divide, brought to attention in several studies (Marcondes, Leite & Ramos, 2017; Hennisen, et al, 2017; Peercy & Troyan, 2017; Häggström & Udén, 2017). Our theoretical framework is grounded in pragmatism and progressive learning (Dewey, 2009), social constructive learning theories (Vygotskij, 1978, 1986) and discovery and scaffolding learning (Bruner, 1960).MethodThis study is partly based on an analytic autoethnographic approach (Anderson, 2006) and based on a previous pedagogical scaffolding method implemented in the campus-based course. The scaffolding method was a Storyline aimed at teacher students’ teaching ability. Research methods/empirical data included in this study are a questionnaire, an evaluation form and individual semi-structured interviews with studen

References
ReferencesAnderson, L. (2006). Analytic Autoethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. Vol     35, Nr 4, p. 373-395.Bruner, J. (1960). The act of discovery. Cambridge, US: Harward Educational Review, 31(1),     p. 21-32.Dewey, John (2009). Democracy and Education. An introduction to the philosophy of     education. Lexington, Kentucky: Feather Trail Press.Marcondes, I.M., Leite, V. F. & Ramos, R.K. (2017). Theory, practice and research in initial     teacher education in Brazil: challenges and alternatives. European Journal of Teacher      Education, vol 40, nr 3, p. 326-341.Hennisen, P., Beckers, H. & Moerkerke, G. (2017). Linking practice to theory in teacher     education: A growth in cognitive structures. Teaching and Teacher Education, vol 63, p.      314-325.Häggström , M. & Udén, A. (2017). Praxisteori i kölvattnet av breddad rekrytering –     scaffoldingmodell som stöd för att förstå sambandet mellan teoretiska perspektiv och     praktisk verksamhet. [Practice theory in the wake of widening participation: Using a     scaffolding model as a support for understanding the link between theoretical perspectives     and practical activities in teacher education]. Acta Didactica Norge, vol 12, nr 1, p. 1-19.Högskoleverket (2009). Förkunskaper och krav i högre utbildning. Rapport 2009:16. Stockholm: Högkoleverket.Peercy, M. M., & Troyan, F. J. (2017). Making Transparent the Challenges of Developing a     Practice-Based Pedagogy of Teacher education. Teaching and Teacher education, vol 61,     p. 26-36.Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.      Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Vygotskij, L. (1986). Thought and Language. Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Institute of     Technology.


christer.mattsson@gu.se
Christer Mattsson

Swedish study trips to Holocaust sites

CoAuthors

Ola Flennegård

English

Abstract Summery

So called “study trips” or excursions to Holocaust memorial sites have significantly increased since the turn of the millennia. In state museum Auschwitz Birkenau alone more than 2 million visitors walk and learn on the premises of the former camp. Not all of them are there for educational reasons and not all are youths, but the vast majority belongs to these two categories. The amount of Swedish visitors reached closely to 45000 in 2018, making study trips to Auschwitz as common as confirmation in church among Swedish teenagers. This study is the first of its kind researching the rationales and pedagogical goals among Swedish teachers who lead these study trips. The study is based on in-depth interviews with eleven teachers who have significant experiences of conducting excursions to Holocaust sites. The study is an integrated part in a larger research effort with the aim to answer questions concerning educational forms and goals for these pedagogical initiatives. This study reveal that these excursions are to be understood as pedagogical grassroots activities and thus not regulated by formal central policies. However, there has been a development of three major sub categories of excursions and it is clear that substantial amount of time and other resources are invested in these activities despite the fact that it is unclear how they relate to formal polices regulating Swedish school system. At the same time political initiatives to further increase these activities are taken on the highest governmental level. These political initiatives are not necessarily coherent with the pedagogical grassroots movement that have been developing the study trips. This study analysis the relations between the grassroots teacher’s logics for their pedagogical work with the ideological framing of the governmental initiatives.

References
Alba, A. (2015) Here there is no why  Holocaust Studies Vol. 21(3) pp.121-138.Alexander, J. (2002). On the social construction of moral universals: The 'Holocaust' from war crime to trauma drama. European Journal of Social Theory, 5(1), 5-86.Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, J., et.al. (2017) Research in Teaching and learning about the Holocaust: A Dialogue Beyond Borders (IHRA series ; vol. 3), Berlin.Ben-Peretz, M. & Shachar, M., (2012) The Role of Experiential Learning in Holocaust Education Social and Education History I Vol.1. pp. 5-27.Clyde, C. (2010) Developing civic leaders through an experiential learning programme for Holocaust education  Prospects Vol. 40(2) pp. 289-306.Cowan, P. & Maitles, H. (2011) We saw inhumanity close up.  Journal of Curriculum Studies Vol. 43(2), pp. 163-184.Davidovich, N. & Soen, D. (2012) Israeli and Diaspora Students Travel to the Holocaust Sites in Poland: The Impact on the Perceptions of the Holocaust, Jewish Identity, and Israel-Diaspora Ties. Sociological Papers Vol. 17 pp.1-16.Gross, M. H. & Kelman, A. Y., (2017) Encountering the past in the present: An exploratory study of educational heritage tourism. International Review of Education Vol. 63(1) pp. 51-70.Lazar, A., Chaitin, J., Gross, T., & Bar-On, D., (2004) A journey to the holocaust: modes of understanding among Israeli adolescents who visited Poland.  Educational Review Vol. 56(1) pp. 13-31.Nager, A. L., Pham, P. & Gold, J. I., 2013 March of the Living, a Holocaust Educational Tour: Effect on Adolescent Jewish Identity. Journal of Religion and Health Vol. 52(4) pp. 1402-1414.Romi, S. & Lev, M. (2007) Experiential learning of history through youth journeys to Poland: Israeli Jewish youth and the Holocaust  Research in Education Vol. (78) pp. 88-102.Shechter, H. & Salomon, G. (2005) Does vicarious experience of suffering affect empathy for an adversary? The effects of Israelis’ visits to Auschwitz on their empathy for Palestinians  Journal of Peace Education Vol. 2(2) pp.


asa.jeansson@umu.se
Åsa Jeansson, PhD, Lektor i pedagogiskt arbete

Digital technology in Sloyd teacher education? A development project with Sloyd teacher educators.

On July 1, 2018, the curriculum for primary school was revised when the government decided to clarify the school's assignment to strengthen the students' digital competence (Regeringskansliet, 2017; Skolverket, 2017). For the subject Sloyd this means that the central content in the syllabus stipulates that the teaching should contain conditions for the pupils to combine different materials with digital technology. Digital tools are described as means for documentation of work process and results, and for work with sketches, models and patterns. However, digital technology combined with traditional and other materials is a completely new content of the subject syllabus, which neither has any subject tradition to build on. Previous research and the National Subject Evaluation in Sloyd has shown that transformation of previous new elements in the syllabus has been problematic for Sloyd teachers (Skolverket, 2015; Frohagen, 2016; Jeansson, 2017).

Based on questions about how the area could be introduced and dealt with in the Sloyd teacher education, and further in the school subject, a practice based development project was carried out with Sloyd teacher educators in 2018. The participants were allowed to try and investigate how digital technology can be included, be seen, or sets traces in the media- specific expression of the Sloyd subject which is manifestades in the artifact, ie. the product. Based on interviews with the participants, the results indicate that so-called digital technology means a new area to conquer and relate to pedagogically. One of the participant projects that involved trying out different digitally controlled processes of materials is presented to exemplify the exploring of material and digital process.

References:
Frohagen, Jenny. (2016). Såga rakt och tillverka uttryck. En studie av hantverkskunnandet i slöjdämnet. Institutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik. (Lic.). Stockholm: Stockholms universitet.

Jeansson, Åsa. (2017). Vad, hur och varför i slöjdämnet. Textillärares uppfattningar om innehåll och undervisning i relation till kursplanen. Doktorsavhandling i Pedagogiskt arbete, nr 74. Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för estetiska ämnen.

Skolverket. (2015). Slöjd i grundskolan. En nationell ämnesutvärdering i årskurs 6 och 9. Rapport 425. Stockholm: Fritzes.

Skolverket. (2011/2018). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet, Lgr11 (reviderad 2018). Hämtad 190320 på: https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=3975

Regeringskansliet. (2017). Stärkt digital kompetens i skolans styrdokument. Promemoria 2017-03-19.


vanessa.hidalgo@umu.se
Vanessa Hidalgo, Yvonne Knospe, and Kirk PH Sullivan

High school write English with Internet access: an analysis of keystrokes and Internet use

This study describes and analyses the English writing processes of Upper secondary school students. A more nuanced understanding of these writers’ approaches to writing in English can help the development of better writing support for these students for their transition to University courses taught in English. This study used computer keystroke logging (see Sullivan and Lindgren, 2006 and Lindgren and Sullivan, 2019) to record the English writing of six upper secondary school students. Computer keystroke logging records all keystroke, cut-and-paste actions, insertions and deletions made by writers during the composition of a text along with the time of each action. This gives researchers detailed access to the process of writing as well as the final text. An earlier study looking at L3 writing in German (Knospe, 2017) placed three of these writers in a group who were controlled by their online sources, and three of these writers in a group who controlled their source use. We explore how these two groups approach some aspects of their English writing differently and approach some aspects of their English writing in similar ways. Understanding that students approach their English writing differently and how they do this is necessary to be able to better support upper secondary school students preparing for the transition to university study.

References
Knospe, Y. (2017). Writing in a third language: A study of upper secondary students’ texts, writing processes and metacognition. (Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, and The University of Antwerp, Belgium). Retrieved from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1093554/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Lindgren, E., & Sullivan, K.P.H. (2019). Observing writing: Insights from keystroke logging and handwriting. Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill.

Sullivan, K.P.H., & Lindgren, E. (2006). Computer keystroke logging and writing: Methods and applications. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Keywords: pre-university students, Swedish, computer keystroke logging, online searching, English as a medium of instruction, writing processes, teaching writing.

cecilia.lindblom@umu.se
Cecilia Lindblom

Grupparbetets påverkan på elevers möjlighet till måluppfyllelse

– En observationsstudie i skolämnet Hem- och konsumentkunskap

Abstract

Att arbeta i grupp och samarbeta är något som förekommer frekvent i skolan (Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2011; Hammar Chiriac & Granström, 2012; Skolverket, 2003). Men vad innebär det att arbeta i grupp och vilka konsekvenser kan det få för elevers möjlighet till lärande? Mot denna bakgrund gjordes en studie vars syfte var att undersöka elevers grupparbete i skolämnet hem- och konsumentkunskap. På vilket sätt arbetade eleverna i köksenheterna och vilka konsekvenser kunde det få för elevernas möjlighet att nå målen i ämnet (Lindblom, Erixon Arreman, Bohm, & Hörnell, 2016)? Studien gjordes med hjälp av video- och ljudinspelning i fyra kommunala skolor i två olika kommuner under åren 2011 och 2012. Antal elever som deltog i studien var 43 stycken i åldrarna 11 – 16 år. Analysen av de observerade lektionerna visade på fyra olika typer av grupparbeten: 1) integrerat grupparbete 2) expertgrupparbete 3) parallellt grupparbete och 4) delat grupparbete. Det som också framkom var att oavsett vilken typ av grupparbete man arbetade i ville eleverna göra uppgifter som de redan hade kunskaper om.

Det mest framträdande resultatet som framkom i studien var att varken expertgrupparbetet, parallella grupparbetet och det delade grupparbetet kunde erbjuda de bästa förutsättningarna för lärande. Många elever i dessa grupper kommunicerade inte med varandra och hade ingen möjlighet att ta initiativ och visa kreativitet vilket är ett av syftena med skolämnet hem- och konsumentkunskap. Yttre ramfaktorer såsom lokaler, lektionstid etc. men även inre ramfaktorer såsom att eleverna själva utgör ramar för varandra påverkade deras möjlighet till lärande. Detta är viktiga kunskaper som lärare bör ta hänsyn till vid gruppsammansättningar i alla ämnen och av stor vikt vid dagens mångkulturella samhälle. En bra gruppsammansättning skulle kunna bidra till ett mer tolerant och medmänskligt samhälle där vi ser möjligheter i varandras olikheter.

Referenser

Forslund Frykedal, K., & Hammar Chiriac, E. (2011). Assessment of students' learning when working in groups. Educational Research, 53(3), 331-345. doi:10.1080/00131881.2011.598661

Hammar Chiriac, E., & Granström, K. (2012). Teachers’ leadership and students’ experience of group work. Teachers and Teaching, 18(3), 345-363. doi:10.1080/13540602.2012.629842

Lindblom, C., Erixon Arreman, I., Bohm, I., & Hörnell, A. (2016). Group work interaction among pupils in Home and Consumer Studies in Sweden. International Journal of Home Economics (IJHE), 9(1), 35-53.

Skolverket. (2003). Nationella utvärderingen av grundskolan. Hem- och konsumentkunskap. Stockholm: Fritzes.


vesna.busic@umu.se
Vesna Busic and Kirk PH Sullivan
Umeå University, Sweden

Where the translanguaging? Experiences of Swedish as a Second Language student teachers during their teaching practice.

There can be dissonance between current research and pedagogical ideas, and the advice given by the school-based mentors during teaching practice (VFU). Upon returning to University after VFU, some students have informally that all languages other Sweden are forbidden/discouraged in the classroom. This is the opposite of what students are taught and the research literature they have studied. We report on a semi-structured focus group interview with Swedish as a Second Language student after their VFU. The interviews covered experiences of VFU, and student and mentor understandings of translanguaging. The paper begins with an analysis of the Swedish national curriculum for Swedish as a Second Language (Skolverket, 2011, 2018) and it (lack of) support for translanguaging, before we overview the content of Swedish as Second language in the teaching degree, with particular focus on content relating to translanguaging. Thereafter, we present the focus group interview study. The recorded and verbatim-transcribed interviews were recursively analyzed for themes. The themes suggest that there is variation in understanding of translanguaging among the students, and the teaching practice mentors, with some actively discouraging translanguaging in the classroom. Based on our findings we suggest ways in which translanguaging needs to be added to professional development programmes for teaching, and gain a clearer position in national educational policy. Such changes may help those new to the classroom to use translanguaging practices in their classrooms.

References
Skolverket (2011). Läroplan, examensmål och gymnasiegemensamma ämnen för gymnasieskola 2011. Stockholm, Sweden: Skolverket. https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=2705

Skolverket (2018). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet, reviderad 2018. [Curriculum for elementary school, preschool class and the after-school center, revised 2018] Stockholm, Sweden: Skolverket. https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=3975


Ingrid Bergqvist,
PhD student in Educational Science, Department of Creative studies, Umea University

How teachers apply the concept Sustainable Development in the subject Sloyd

In 2015 UN declared seventeen Global Goals for a better world to 2030, where one of the goals is that all students receive knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development througheducation.

Since 1994, the concept of sustainable development has been included as an overall perspective in the Swedish curriculum. The subject sloyd is quite unique in the fields of education and has a long tradition regarding to sustainability, yet there are results and discussions which show how the potential of sloyd in the aspects of sustainability not is visible (National agency of education, 2005, and 2015). Teachers feel uncertain and there are students who don’t practice environment and resource management which are parts of the syllabus. The research field about ESD have showed that teachers have different opinions and strategies about ESD (Bonnet 2013, Björneloo 2007, Gyberg & Löfgren 2016 ) and studies dominates by subjects as geography, science and techniques and not in Arts (Illeris 2017).

The aim with my research is to study the subject sloyd and their purpose in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD) based on how sloyd teachers implement the ESD in their teaching. What will teachers adress in their teaching, how do teachers communicate, what effects can be seen? What’s behind the didactic choices teachers make? The theoretical framework of this study’s purpose is probably to use didactic theory (Uljens, 1997). The topic will be investigated by qualitative methods including observations of sloyd education and interviews with teachers. Analyzing tools is not decides, conceivable tools can be discourse analysis or gender analysis. Finally, the aim of the study will provide what factors that are important to what content and methods sloyd teachers use in teaching ESD.

Keywords: Education, Sloyd, Sustainability development, Teaching,


Karin Sporre, Umeå University

Children, sustainability, and hope

Abstract:

In this study 20 Swedish and 20 South African children aged 10 to 11 years have been interviewed. The schools they come from were chosen to provide variation regarding socio-economic/educational background of parents and language resources. In both countries scarcity of water is a reality in the local communities where the interviews took place. The purpose of the study is to explore what existential questions and ethical perspectives the children raise.

The semi-structured interviews have been based on methods developed in earlier Swedish studies (cf. Hartman 1986) but also with new and additional questions added. English and Swedish were the languages used in interviewing. After transcription the analyses have focused existential and ethical concerns expressed by the children. Initially the comparisons focus on variations in the thoughts of children from the two countries. Comparison with results from the earlier studies is also possible. 

Preliminary analyses of the South African material reveal access to water being regarded as a crucial existential concern, as in the sentence “without water we can’t live”. Ethically, the relationships, in the family, to animals and nature play an important role. The word ‘sustainability’ is not well known but an understanding of the importance of water for human beings, plants, and animals is obvious with the children.   

The study draws on a model of understanding children’s existential questions and ethical concerns as being expressions of personal worldviews (Hartman 1986). Knowledge of children’s existential thinking is of general importance for education, as recently argued by Ristiniemi et al. (2018). 

Hartman, Sven, G. (1986). Children's philosophy of life. Stockholm: Stockholm Institute of Education.

Ristiniemi, J. Skeie, G. & Sporre, K (2018) Introduction. In Ristiniemi, J., Skeie, G. & Sporre, K. (Eds.) Challenging Life: Existential Questions as Resources in Education, (pp.13-18). Münster: Waxmann.


Vesna Busic and Kirk PH Sullivan
Umeå University, Sweden

Where the translanguaging? Experiences of Swedish as a Second Language student teachers during their teaching practice.

There can be dissonance between current research and pedagogical ideas, and the advice given by the school-based mentors during teaching practice (VFU). Upon returning to University after VFU, some students have informally that all languages other Sweden are forbidden/discouraged in the classroom. This is the opposite of what students are taught and the research literature they have studied. We report on a semi-structured focus group interview with Swedish as a Second Language student after their VFU. The interviews covered experiences of VFU, and student and mentor understandings of translanguaging. The paper begins with an analysis of the Swedish national curriculum for Swedish as a Second Language (Skolverket, 2011, 2018) and it (lack of) support for translanguaging, before we overview the content of Swedish as Second language in the teaching degree, with particular focus on content relating to translanguaging. Thereafter, we present the focus group interview study. The recorded and verbatim-transcribed interviews were recursively analyzed for themes. The themes suggest that there is variation in understanding of translanguaging among the students, and the teaching practice mentors, with some actively discouraging translanguaging in the classroom. Based on our findings we suggest ways in which translanguaging needs to be added to professional development programmes for teaching, and gain a clearer position in national educational policy. Such changes may help those new to the classroom to use translanguaging practices in their classrooms.

References
Skolverket (2011). Läroplan, examensmål och gymnasiegemensamma ämnen för gymnasieskola 2011. Stockholm, Sweden: Skolverket. https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=2705


Skolverket (2018). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet, reviderad 2018. [Curriculum for elementary school, preschool class and the after-school center, revised 2018] Stockholm, Sweden: Skolverket. https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=3975


Cecilia Lindblom

Abstract

Att arbeta i grupp och samarbeta är något som förekommer frekvent i skolan (Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2011; Hammar Chiriac & Granström, 2012; Skolverket, 2003). Men vad innebär det att arbeta i grupp och vilka konsekvenser kan det få för elevers möjlighet till lärande? Mot denna bakgrund gjordes en studie vars syfte var att undersöka elevers grupparbete i skolämnet hem- och konsumentkunskap. På vilket sätt arbetade eleverna i köksenheterna och vilka konsekvenser kunde det få för elevernas möjlighet att nå målen i ämnet (Lindblom, Erixon Arreman, Bohm, & Hörnell, 2016)? Studien gjordes med hjälp av video- och ljudinspelning i fyra kommunala skolor i två olika kommuner under åren 2011 och 2012. Antal elever som deltog i studien var 43 stycken i åldrarna 11 – 16 år. Analysen av de observerade lektionerna visade på fyra olika typer av grupparbeten: 1) integrerat grupparbete 2) expertgrupparbete 3) parallellt grupparbete och 4) delat grupparbete. Det som också framkom var att oavsett vilken typ av grupparbete man arbetade i ville eleverna göra uppgifter som de redan hade kunskaper om.

Det mest framträdande resultatet som framkom i studien var att varken expertgrupparbetet, parallella grupparbetet och det delade grupparbetet kunde erbjuda de bästa förutsättningarna för lärande. Många elever i dessa grupper kommunicerade inte med varandra och hade ingen möjlighet att ta initiativ och visa kreativitet vilket är ett av syftena med skolämnet hem- och konsumentkunskap. Yttre ramfaktorer såsom lokaler, lektionstid etc. men även inre ramfaktorer såsom att eleverna själva utgör ramar för varandra påverkade deras möjlighet till lärande. Detta är viktiga kunskaper som lärare bör ta hänsyn till vid gruppsammansättningar i alla ämnen och av stor vikt vid dagens mångkulturella samhälle. En bra gruppsammansättning skulle kunna bidra till ett mer tolerant och medmänskligt samhälle där vi ser möjligheter i varandras olikheter.

Referenser
Forslund Frykedal, K., & Hammar Chiriac, E. (2011). Assessment of students' learning when working in groups. Educational Research, 53(3), 331-345. doi:10.1080/00131881.2011.598661

Hammar Chiriac, E., & Granström, K. (2012). Teachers’ leadership and students’ experience of group work. Teachers and Teaching, 18(3), 345-363. doi:10.1080/13540602.2012.629842

Lindblom, C., Erixon Arreman, I., Bohm, I., & Hörnell, A. (2016). Group work interaction among pupils in Home and Consumer Studies in Sweden. International Journal of Home Economics (IJHE), 9(1), 35-53.

Skolverket. (2003). Nationella utvärderingen av grundskolan. Hem- och konsumentkunskap. Stockholm: Fritzes.


Maria Deldén
FD, lektor i pedagogiskt arbete, Högskolan Dalarna

Resocialiseringsprocesser hos unga vuxna i Quindío, Colombia

I Colombia pågår sedan 2011 en fredprocess som bland annat inneburit en omförhandling av utbildningens roll för fredsfostran. I denna process fyller olika ickestatliga organisationer en viktig funktion. Syftet med denna presentation är att synliggöra och diskutera om och hur icke-formellt lärande kan ha bäring för det institutionaliserade lärandet, med speciellt fokus på resocialiserings­processer hos unga vuxna i en kultur präglad av våld. En angelägen fråga att få svar på är vilken roll arbete med ickevåldskommunikation i informella utbildningsmiljöer spelar för individers och gruppers möjligheter till utvidgat tänkande. Teoretisk utgångspunkt för presentationen hämtas hos Paulo Freire och hans begrepp epistemologisk nyfikenhet, autonomi, ”unfinishedness” och ”intervention in the world”. Presentationen ämnar bidra till kunskap om hur våldskommunikation kan vändas till ickevåld genom folkbildning. Denna kunskap är relevant för det formella utbildningssystemet och projektet kan ge perspektiv på skolors arbete för fred i Colombia, och för skolors arbete mot våldsbejakande extremism i Sverige och andra länder.


Vanessa Hidalgo, Yvonne Knospe, and Kirk PH Sullivan, Umeå University

High school write English with Internet access: an analysis of keystrokes and Internet use

This study describes and analyses the English writing processes of Upper secondary school students. A more nuanced understanding of these writers’ approaches to writing in English can help the development of better writing support for these students for their transition to University courses taught in English. This study used computer keystroke logging (see Sullivan and Lindgren, 2006 and Lindgren and Sullivan, 2019) to record the English writing of six upper secondary school students. Computer keystroke logging records all keystroke, cut-and-paste actions, insertions and deletions made by writers during the composition of a text along with the time of each action. This gives researchers detailed access to the process of writing as well as the final text. An earlier study looking at L3 writing in German (Knospe, 2017) placed three of these writers in a group who were controlled by their online sources, and three of these writers in a group who controlled their source use. We explore how these two groups approach some aspects of their English writing differently and approach some aspects of their English writing in similar ways. Understanding that students approach their English writing differently and how they do this is necessary to be able to better support upper secondary school students preparing for the transition to university study.

References
Knospe, Y. (2017). Writing in a third language: A study of upper secondary students’ texts, writing processes and metacognition. (Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, and The University of Antwerp, Belgium). Retrieved from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1093554/FULLTEXT01.pdf


Lindgren, E., & Sullivan, K.P.H. (2019). Observing writing: Insights from keystroke logging and handwriting. Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill.

Sullivan, K.P.H., & Lindgren, E. (2006). Computer keystroke logging and writing: Methods and applications. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Keywords: pre-university students, Swedish, computer keystroke logging, online searching, English as a medium of instruction, writing processes, teaching writing.


Åsa Jeansson,
PhD, Lektor i pedagogiskt arbete
asa.jeansson@umu.se
Anna Lindwall, lektor på konstnärlig grund
anna.lindwall@umu.se
Institutionen för estetiska ämnen, Umeå universitet

Digital technology in Sloyd teacher education? A development project with Sloyd teacher educators.

On July 1, 2018, the curriculum for primary school was revised when the government decided to clarify the school's assignment to strengthen the students' digital competence (Regeringskansliet, 2017; Skolverket, 2017). For the subject Sloyd this means that the central content in the syllabus stipulates that the teaching should contain conditions for the pupils to combine different materials with digital technology. Digital tools are described as means for documentation of work process and results, and for work with sketches, models and patterns. However, digital technology combined with traditional and other materials is a completely new content of the subject syllabus, which neither has any subject tradition to build on. Previous research and the National Subject Evaluation in Sloyd has shown that transformation of previous new elements in the syllabus has been problematic for Sloyd teachers (Skolverket, 2015; Frohagen, 2016; Jeansson, 2017).

Based on questions about how the area could be introduced and dealt with in the Sloyd teacher education, and further in the school subject, a practice based development project was carried out with Sloyd teacher educators in 2018. The participants were allowed to try and investigate how digital technology can be included, be seen, or sets traces in the media- specific expression of the Sloyd subject which is manifestades in the artifact, ie. the product. Based on interviews with the participants, the results indicate that so-called digital technology means a new area to conquer and relate to pedagogically. One of the participant projects that involved trying out different digitally controlled processes of materials is presented to exemplify the exploring of material and digital process.

References:
Frohagen, Jenny. (2016). Såga rakt och tillverka uttryck. En studie av hantverkskunnandet i slöjdämnet. Institutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik. (Lic.). Stockholm: Stockholms universitet.

Jeansson, Åsa. (2017). Vad, hur och varför i slöjdämnet. Textillärares uppfattningar om innehåll och undervisning i relation till kursplanen. Doktorsavhandling i Pedagogiskt arbete, nr 74. Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för estetiska ämnen.

Skolverket. (2015). Slöjd i grundskolan. En nationell ämnesutvärdering i årskurs 6 och 9. Rapport 425. Stockholm: Fritzes.

Skolverket. (2011/2018). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet, Lgr11 (reviderad 2018). Hämtad 190320 på: https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=3975

Regeringskansliet. (2017). Stärkt digital kompetens i skolans styrdokument. Promemoria 2017-03-19.


Ann-Charlotte Dahlbäck, Umeå universitet

Meaning making in transitions

Purpose/goal

The aim of the study is to visualize and discuss how students perceive and make meaning in their transition from pre-school class to primary school. A special goal is to identify factors that facilitates and/or hinders students’ successful transition.

Method

In spring 2017, nine five-year-old children expressed their thoughts before starting in preschool class. The thoughts were documented in interviews and drawings that the students made. By going back to the students who were interviewed then and with their images as artifacts, the study wants to analyze how the students retrospectively describe their experiences of the transition and make the students' expectations and concerns visible to future transitions. In analyses, the study wants to understand what the important aspects to take into account at school transitions are.

Theoretical framing

The study has a social constructionist framework. The children's experiences of transitions is constructed together with the researcher in the process of research (Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2017). A socio-cultural perspective is used and presumes that transitions are constructed in a social community. During transitions the students revise and re-identify their identities. The pupils´ experiences in the transition process becomes important aspects in the students' identity construction and meaning making (Newman & Paasi, 1998).

Expected conclusions

The pupils are expected to be able to give their thoughts on things they saw as frightening but which turned out to be simple and other things that were really difficult. It is hoped that, based on the students' experiences, tools will be found to use in the work with successful transitions.

Reference
Alvesson & Sköldberg (2017). Tolkning och reflektion : vetenskapsfilosofi och kvalitativ metod (Tredje upplagan. ed.): Lund : Studentlitteratur.

Newman, D., & Paasi, A. (1998). Fences and neighbors in the postmodern world: boundary narratives in political geography. Progress in Human Geography, 22 (2), 186-207.


Anna-Karin Hagström
Umeå universitet

The professional development and learning of teachers in a community School of Arts.

Purpose/goal
The aim of this study is to study the professional development and learning of teachers in a community school of Arts, regarding their development of teaching methods and approaches, within the framework of an action research project.
Method
The object of study in the intended essay consists of an action research project carried out in a community School of Arts in Northern Sweden. The approach is qualitative and the empirical material consists of eight teachers written reflections produced within and about the project, transcribed texts based on recorded conversations of reflections that have been made in the research circles. Through a hermeneutic approach, the material will be analyzed and thematised. Strong reflection will be used, where the action research group can comment on the preliminary result.
Theoretical framing
The study takes a social constructionist perspective (Bryman, 2018). With the help of Wenger's (1998) theory of social learning, community of practice, and the theory concepts: participation, reification, negotiation and realization, as well as the three definitions: joint project, collective tools and mutual involvement, the action research process and its outcome can be interpreted.
Expected conclusions
This study is expected to contribute with knowledge about how methodological tools and a changed view of pedagogical approaches can be made possible when teachers consciously manage their professional development and learning. The result is also believed to demonstrate the unity of research regarding professional development and learning within the legislated school.

References
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bryman, A. (2018). Social science methods. (3rd edition). Stockholm: Liber.


Carin Johansson,
Umeå universitet

Abstract

Purpose/goal
The purpose with this study is to investigate how the special education support can be designed and organized with greater consideration to meet the students´ individual needs and the different learning environments. The study will describe how the students´ experience special education support, goal fulfilment, participating and learning, today. And how the teaching can be designed to give the students with special needs a proper environment that will contribute to the students´ knowledge, development and learning.

Method 
This is a qualitative study consisting of interviews with eight students aged 10-13, using a narrative method, with students that today receives special education support at one school unit.

Theoretical framing 
Theoretical starting points are special educational perspective (Nilholm, 2006), inclusion from a socio-cultural perspective and a narrative perspective (Johansson, 2005). In practice, it is often the resources that affect the design and organization of special support (Koller, Le Pousseard & Rummens, 2017). 

Expected conclusion
The student and teacher relation is improved and it begins a forward movement, whereas the purpose is to view education in a positive light and experience a positive education. The interviews with students show the importance in meeting and of dialogue. Positive effects, more knowledge about need for support and the possibility to make the strengths visible in every student. Success factors and influence factors are viewed. The need for support is more individually adapted. The learning is increased and improved.

References
Johansson, A. (2005). Narrativ teori och metod

Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Nilholm, C. (2006). Inkludering av elever ”i behov av särskilt stöd”. - Vad betyder det och vad vet vi? Monografi serie Forskning i focus nr 28.

Myndigheten för skolutveckling.

Koller, D. Le Pousseard, M. Rummens, J-A. (2017) Defining Social Inclusion for Children with Disabilities: A Critical Literature Review

https://doi.org/10.1111/chso.12223


Christina Wiklund,
Umeå universitet

Abstract

The desire to learn – the path towards developing knowledge. Students´ perspectives on their driving forces and involvement in school

Purpose
The purpose of the study is to investigate, analyse and discuss 9 th grade students´[1] perceptions of which factors that generate their desire to learn and to engage in school during class. The focus will be on what experiences and perceptions the students have concerning the desire to learn and how teachers at the senior level of the Swedish secondary school can use this.
Method
The study has a qualitative approach and the empirical material is collected by individual semi-structured interviews with students in year 9. The interviews will be based on an interview template with open questions.
Theoretical framing
The theoretical frame is based on social constructionism (Burr 2015), knowledge of sociology (Berger & Luckmann 1999) and sociocultural theory and the concept of ZPD (Vygotskij 1934; Lindkvist 1999) which is well suited to my study since the basic idea of ​​this theory is that all knowledge is created in relation to others, the context is more important than personal characteristics. These theories focus on the intersubjectivity between teachers and students’ coproduction of students desire to learn at school. Relationships and social interaction are important factors to study.
Expected conclusions
The study will contribute with knowledge as to how the teaching can be developed to create a desire to learn in school. Furthermore, there is also a hope that this study will create discussions in the teachers´ guild on this important topic, since the desire to learn is our students´ path towards developing their knowledge.

References
Berger, P., & Luckmann, T. (1999). Knowledge Sociology - How the individual perceives and transforms his social reality. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand.

Burr, V. (2015). Social Constructionism. London: Routledge.

Lindqvist, G., Ed. (1999). Vygotskij och skolan. Texter ur Lev Vygotskijs Pedagogisk psykologi kommenterad som historia och aktualitet. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Vygotskij, L. (1934/1999). Tänkande och språk. Göteborg: Bokförlaget Diadalos AB.


Elisabeth Pettersson 
Umeå universitet

Science teacher’s construction of meaning in their own practice

Purpose:
The purpose with this study is to examine how science teachers view/look upon their own practise and to give the science teacher a voice. How do they create their own practise in their own school context? The goal is to find a more complex answer to why so many science teachers want to quit their jobs.

Method:
To examine above mentioned goal a semi-controlled narrative interview of nine teachers who have worked at least ten years as a science teacher with students in the age of 12 to 16 years old is going to be recorded. The interview is going to take place in their own school-environment to put the teacher in to the right context and continue for at least one hour, autumn 2019. This to give a rich and broad material to work with.

Theoretical framing:
The study will use Bourdieu and his concept of field, habitus and foremost illusio. Illusio is the relationship between the field, in this case the science school practice and the player in this case the teacher. The agents who are caught up in the illusio is well adapted to the field and are mastered by the field and other agents who is not familiar with the field think that this relationship is an illusion. Therefore, it is important that the interviewer is, in fact a science teacher who can understand the field and the illusio.

Expected outcomes:
The ambition is to give the science teacher a voice, to view how science teachers are experiencing their illusio ant try to explain in such a way that other people who is not familiar with the field and the illusio can understand the science teachers’ dilemmas.

Relevance:
Many science teachers quit their job, not so many are starting a carrier as a science teacher. Many studies are made on science teachers fewer try to understand the teacher’s situation and therefore this study is important.

References:
Abell, S. K., & Lederman, N. G. (2007). Handbook of research on science education. Mahwah, NJ: Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity : theory, research, critique (Rev. ed. ed.). Lanham, Md.: Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Biesta, G. (2006). Bortom lärandet : demokratisk utbildning för en mänsklig framtid. Lund : Studentlitteratur.

Bourdieu, P., Gimdal, G., & Jordebrandt, S. (1999). Praktiskt förnuft : bidrag till en
            handlingsteori.
Göteborg : Daidalos

Bryman,A (2018),Samhällsvetenskapliga metoder. Upplaga 3. Malmö: Liber AB
Carlgren, I. (2015). Kunskapskulturer och undervisningspraktiker. Göteborg: Daidalos.
Dysthe, O. (2003). Dialog, samspel och lärande. Lund : Studentlitteratur.
Englund, T., Forsberg, E., & Sundberg, D. (2012). Vad räknas som kunskap? :
            läroplansteoretiska utsikter och inblickar i lärarutbildning och skola
(1. uppl. ed.).

            Stockholm: Liber.

Engström, Susanne. (2011). Att vördsamt värdesätta eller tryggt trotsa: Gymnasiefysiken, undervisningstraditioner och fysiklärares olika strategier för energiundervisning . Doctoral dissertation, Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.

Gyberg, P., & Löfgren, H. (2016). Knowledge outside the Box--Sustainable Development Education in Swedish Schools. Educational Research, 58(3), 283-299. doi:10.1080/00131881.2016.1207871

Haglund, J., & Hultén, M. (2017). Tension between Visions of Science Education: The Case of Energy Quality in Swedish Secondary Science Curricula. Science & Education, 26, 323-324), p.323-344. doi:10.1007/s11191-017-9895-1

Hartman, S. G. (2012). Det pedagogiska kulturarvet : traditioner och idéer i svensk undervisningshistoria (2., [rev] utg. ed.). Stockholm: Natur & kultur.

Hultén, M. (2008). Naturens kanon: formering och förändring av innehållet i folkskolans och grundskolans naturvetenskap 1842-2007. Stockholm : Pedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.

Kroksmark, T. (2013). De stora frågorna om skolan (1. uppl. ed.). Lund : Studentlitteratur.

Löfdahl, S. E. (1987). Fysikämnet i svensk realskola och grundskola : kartläggning och alternativ ur fysikdidaktisk synvinkel = [The subject physics in the Swedish junior high school and the comprehensive school] : [survey and alternatives from a physics didactic point of view]. Uppsala : Univ. ; Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell International distributör, Uppsala : Stockholm.

Wickenberg, P. (2013). Ett steg fram och ett tillbaka- : statens styrning av miljö och hållbar utveckling genom skollag, läroplaner och kursplaner. Lund : Sociology of Law, Lund University.

Östman, L., Öhman, M., Lundqvist, E., & Lidar, M. (2015). Teaching, Learning and Governance in Science Education and Physical Education: A Comparative Approach. Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education, 46(4), 369-386. doi:10.1007/s10780-015-9268-0


Iris Rosengren Larsson,
Umeå universitet

What is the significance of reflection for teachers in an action research project?

Purpose
The purpose is to gain insight into teachers' experiences of reflection in an action research project.

Method
In the study, qualitative method is used through text analyses and interviews with 15 teachers who have used reflection in an action research project.

Theoretical framing
The theoretical approach is phenomenology, since reflection, as a phenomenon, is experienced and experienced by the teachers who participate in the research project. Phenomenology has two intentions; the first is to understand and approach the phenomenon to be studied and the other to design the approach to capture the phenomenon. Through text analyzes and interviews, the empirical material is collected.

Expected results
The expected result is that the study should show that reflection is a prerequisite for development, scientific basis and proven experience in the school. From the teacher's perspective, and especially the teachers who have participated, to make their own professional development visible, that through reflection they can put words on what is happening in the pedagogical activity and that one can anchor "doing" on a scientific basis. Teachers' "silent" knowledge, which consists of so much experience, becomes proven experience with the help of reflection. For teachers who have not participated in the study, the study becomes an inspiration and a method for professional development. From a management perspective, time is created for reflection in the organization and that reflection becomes a useful tool in future development projects. Finally, from a master's perspective, the study provides in-depth scientific competence.

Relevance for educational work
The study is relevant to the subject of pedagogy and learning as it presents reflection, as a method, for developing teacher learning.


Joakim Wallstén, Umeå universitet 

Relation, achievement & gender. The human teacher.

Purpose/goal
The purpose of my study is with perspective from relational- and gender theory, to visualize the human aspects of being a teacher, when aiming to create higher achievement together with students. Regarding gender attributed abilities; How do teachers create masculinity and femininity in their bonding with students on a secondary school level?

Method
I will do interviews with 5 male and 5 female teachers on a secondary school in the north of Sweden. The interviews will be prepared, recorded, transcribed and analyzed from the narrative perspective, where analyze and discussion will problematize how we construct ourselves, regarding to the surroundings ideas, time and place and relations we are in. (Hansson, 2014; Kvale & Brinkman, 2014; Johansson, 2005; Bryman, 2018; Prieto, 2016).

Theoretical framing
Relational theory is an offspring from social psychology theory. Relational theory contributes with the emotional aspects of being a human in relation to others (Aspelin, 2015; Mead, 1976; Lögestrup, 1992/1956; Gergen, 2009; Sheffs,1990). The gender perspective is taken from gender stereotypes and gender expectations, structural constructions to protect male hegemony and from a perspective that sexuality is a social construction and in constant change. (Gemzöe, 2017; Connell, 1996; Hirdman, 1988; Butler, 1999; Hill, 2007). The epistemological view on student achievement is that students learn in relations to others. (Aspelin, 2015; Biesta, 2006; Dysthe, 2003; Carlgren, 2015).

Expected conclusions
I hope to find that teachers find their ways, regardless gender expectations and attributed gender abilities, to create personal bonds with students in purpose to reach higher achievement. Hopefully the triangular of relation, achievement and gender, will make way for new and deeper understanding, but also further questions.

References
Aspelin, J. (2015). Inga prestationer utan relationer. Studier för pedagogisk socialpsykologi.

Gleerups Utbildning AB.

Biesta, G (2006). Bortom lärandet. Demokratisk utbildning för en mänsklig framtid.

Lund: Studentlitteratur AB.

Bryman, A. (2018). Samhällsvetenskapliga metoder.

Stockholm: Liber.

Butler, J. (2007). Genus trubbel. Feminism och identitetens subversion. Göteborg: Bokförlaget Daidalos AB.

Carlgren, I. (2015). Kunskapskulturer och undervisningspraktiker.

Göteborg: Bokförlaget Daidalos AB.

Connell, R. W. (1996). Maskuliniteter. Göteborg: Bokförlaget Daidalos AB.

Dysthe O. (red.) (2003). Dialog, samspel och lärande. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Gemzöe, L. (2017). Feminism. Hofors: Bilda förlag.

Gergen, K. (2009). Relational being. Beyond self and community.

Oxford University Press.

Hansson, K. (2014). Skola och medier: aktiviteter och styrning i en kommuns utvecklingssträvanden. Diss. Umeå: Umeå universitet.

Hill, H. (2007) Befria mannen: Idéer om förtryck, frigörelse och förändring hos en svensk mansrörelse under 70- och 80-tal.

Hirdman, Y. (1988). Genussystemet – reflexioner kring kvinnors sociala underordning.

Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift nr 3.

Johansson, A (2005). Narrativ teori och metod: med livsberättelsen i fokus.

Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2014). Den kvalitativa forskningsintervjun.

Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Lögstrup, K. E. (1992/1956). Det etiska kravet (The ethical demand; in Swedish)

Göteborg: Daidalos.

Mead, G. H. (1976). Medvetandet, jaget och samhället. Från socialbehaviorisk ståndpunkt.

Lund: Argos förlag.

Prieto, P. H. (2006). Historien om räven och andra berättelser.

Karlstad University Studies 2006:52. Karlstad.

Scheff, T. J. (1990). Microsociology. Discourse, emotion and social structure.

Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.


Lena Kristensson,
Umeå universitet

Caregivers´ view of their children's placement in municipality-specific special education group.

Purpose/goal
Inclusion is something that the school should strive for as much as possible although there is the opportunity to place students in a special teaching group. My intention with the study is to raise and discuss caregivers’ experiences of having/or having had their child placed in a municipality-specific special teaching group.

Method
Qualitative unstructured interviews with a narrative approach.

Theoretical framing
In this study system theory will be the main theory, where the world is seen as a whole. The child is not the bearer of the problem, the problem is formed in the chosen method of working. System theory gives an approach to not look for a single cause, but instead open for an approach where many different parts are involved and influential. Bronfenbrenner (1979) has formed a developmental ecological model within system theory. He describes the individual in development and the systems that surround the individual that is in the center. Bronfenbrenner has formed its developmental ecological model in various systems from microsystems to macrosystems. All these systems are linked together by different relationships that affect each other.

Expected conclusions
I expect the caregivers to discuss pupil achievement and communication with the school as positive effects of pupils having a placement in a special teaching group. I expect that the caregivers will also raise concerns about the social effects the placement may have on pupils.

Relevance for educational work
Inclusion is a democratic right for every child and the way in which good inclusion is formed should be made visible on an organizational level, to create an accessible learning environment. Furthermore, it is also important to lift the pupils' achievement and social development in a particular teaching group and how it affects their sense of inclusion or exclusion.


Linda Jansson,
Umeå universitet

Preschool teachers´ view of the concept of teaching.

Since 1998, preschool provision in Sweden has been supervised through the Ministry of Education. Since then, concepts from compulsory schooling have been formally incorporated in this provision. Teaching is a particularly striking example. The purpose of this study is to investigate how preschool teachers interpret and understand teaching, and what implications appear from the preschools´ revised curriculum in 2018 (Skolverket, 2011).

The empirical material consists of text documents written by 15 preschool teachers with a number of questions about teaching. The material will be analyzed using critical discourse analysis.

Theoretically, the study applies curriculum theoretical framework. Foucaults theory (Nilsson, 2008) of governmentality will be applied to study how a state intention is made in the local context, i.e. what will be the preschool teachers' assignments when formulations about teaching will be realized in the preschool's everyday practice.

One ambition of the study is to illustrate with the help of the texts how preschool teachers strive to adapt the teaching concept to an already preventative preschool activity. That the preschool should now be covered by the concept of teaching can be understood against a desire to develop the preschool at the crossing of different pedagogical approaches. On the other hand, the choice to include the concept of teaching in the preschool may point to an intention to motivate schooling and reshaping of preschool.

The study problematizes preschool teacher’s experiences of the teaching concept. By highlighting their reasoning, parts of the conditions that frame the preschool teachers' responsibility in everyday practice are made visible.

Nilsson, R. (2008). Foucault : en introduktion. Malmö: Malmö : Égalité.
Skolverket. (2011). Läroplan för förskolan Lpfö 98 (2., rev. uppl. ed.). Stockholm: Stockholm : Skolverket : Fritze distributör.

Linda Wikström,
Umeå universitet

The support of newly arrived students in words specific to general school language and the social sciences subject

The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze in which ways newly arrived students aged 13-16 are being supported regarding subject realted concepts specific to the social science subject and to the general language used in school. The study explores both students and teachers’ perspectives.

The study investigates student’s and teacher’s experiences of factors that obstructs and facilitates the learning of the concepts and wheather their experience is concistent.

The study is based on a socio-cultural theory framework to highlight the importance of letting the student’s language and knowledge of the subject develop in parallel and dialogical processes. More precisely, Vygotsky’s theory of the language’s role for thinking and learning (Vygotsky 2001) and Halliday’s systemic-functional grammar (Halliday 1993), are used to interpret data.

As a method, both data and method triangulation are being used (Denscombe 2009). Through participatory observation (Bryman 2018) of six newly arrived students and semi-structured interviews (Kvale & Brinkman 2014) with two social studies teachers and the six newly arrived students, the support given is investigated. The result of the observations and interviews is then analyzed in a way that is based on both the teacher’s and student’s own statements and the image that appear in the observations. The study takes place in two different schools.

The expected result of the study is to create knowledge about what hinders and what facilitates newly arrived students learning in the teaching of social studies. This is an important contribution to the field, since previous research and reports of teaching in Sweden show that there is still a lack of linguistic perspectives in social science and explicit teaching about language and text is unusual (Hyltenstam, Axelsson & Lindberg 2012).

Referenser
Axelsson, Monica., & Magnusson Ulrika. (2012). Forskning om flerspråkighet och kunskapsutveckling under skolåren. I:K. Hyltenstam., M. Axelsson., & I. Lindberg (Red.), Flerspråkighet: en forskningsöversikt. Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie 2012:5. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.


Bryman, Alan. (2018). Samhällsvetenskapliga metoder. Stockholm: Liber.

Descombe, Martyn. (2009) Forskningshandboken: för småskaliga forskningsprojekt inom samhällsvetenskaperna. (2.uppl.) Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Halliday, Michael, A.K. (1993). Towards a Language-Based Theory of Learning. Linguistics and Education 5, s. 93-116.

Halliday, Michael, A.K. (1998). Things and relations. I: Martin, J.R & Weel, Robert (red.) (1998). Reading science, critical and functional Perspectives on Discourses of Science. New York: Routledge.

Kvale, Steinar & Brinkman, Svend (2014) Den kvalitativa forskningsintervjun. Lund: Studentlitteratur AB.

Vygotskij, L. S. (2001). Tänkande och språk. Göteborg: Daidalos.


Magdalena Norén,
Umeå universitet

Formulating goals and learning approaches: Students views on measurable knowledge requirements and a lifelong learning.

Purpose/goal
The study intends to make visible the affordances that a goal-oriented approach gives students in study preparation programs in upper secondary schools and there approaches to learning.

Method
To get an idea of ​​how affordances with a goal-oriented approach are perceived and described by students, which subject positions are offered and which discourses are made visible or silenced, I will make focus group interviews (Wibeck, 2010) with students from different study preparation programs at a secondary school in Sweden.

Theoretical framing
The study's ontology is social constructionist (Bryman, 2018) and the epistemology is socio-cultural (Lindqvist, 1999). The empirical study is analyzed with the help of Fairclough's three-dimensional discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1992; Winther Jørgensen's & Phillips, 2017). In line with Winther Jørgensen's & Phillips the concept order of discourse is integrated as a framework for the analysis.

Expected conclusions
The study is expected to make visible discourses and mutual order of discourses that can affect students' perception of the affordances offered by a goal-oriented work method and how it might influence pupils' approaches to learning.

References
Bryman, A. (2018). Samhällsvetenskapliga metoder (3 uppl.). (B. Nilsson, Övers) Stockholm: Liber.

Fairclough, N. (1992) Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Lindqvist, G. (1999). Vygotskij och skolan. Texter ur Lev Vygotskijs Pedagogisk psykologi (1926) kommenterade som historia och aktualitet. Lund: Studentlitteratur AB.

Wibeck, Viktoria. (2010). Fokusgrupper: om fokuserade gruppintervjuer som undersökningsmetod. Lund: Studentlitteratur AB.

Winther Jorgensen, M., & Phillips, L. (2017). Diskursanalys som teori och metod. (S-E. Torhell, Övers.) Lund: Studentlitteratur.


Maria Karlsson,

Umeå universitet

Intensive reading with reading lists

According to the SBU-report (2014), a conscious and systematic training of the students phonological awareness, is of great importance for the students further progress in reading.  Vetenskapsrådet (2015) also highlights the importance of introducing the training from an early age. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether intensive reading with Wendick's (2012) reading lists in full-class over a four-week period increases the students 'reading speed and flow, compared to a control group, and at the same time take part in the educators and the students' experience of this method. The study is a mixed method with a qualitative and a quantitative part and is based on measurements of reading speed. For three years, the reading speed has been measured after a four-week period with pupils in grade one at a school. The results of these measurements as well as next year´s grade one will be included in the study. Before the period of intensive reading has begun, the reading speed of the students is measured for both the group that were trained, and the control group. The students in the training group should then read the reading lists every day at school in pair. Each day the reading lists progresses in a systematic way. After four weeks the reading speed is once again measured for both groups. The students´ result of the reading speed will be complemented with qualitative interviews of the educators and a selection of the students to take their experience into consideration regarding this way of educating. If the results shows on positive effects regarding the reading speed and flow and the experience of the educators and students, then the reading lists should be a good example of extra adjustments in the frame of ordinary teaching (Skollagen, 2010:3§5a). The expected result is that it will have an effect on the reading speed and flow.

Reference
SBU. (2014). Dyslexi hos barn och ungdomar - tester och insatser. En systematisk litteraturöversikt. Retrieved from Stockholm:

Sveriges Riksdag (2010) Skollagen https://www.riksdagen.se/sv/dokument-lagar/dokument/svensk-forfattningssamling/skollag-2010800_sfs-2010-800

Vetenskapsrådet. (2015). Kunskapsöversikt om läs- och skrivundervisning för yngre elever. Retrieved from Stockholm:

Wendick, G. (2012). Intensivläsning, Wendick-modellen. Jönköping: Wendick Utbildning


Sara Viklund,
Umeå universitet

After the project – teachers’ experiences of practice-based research

Purpose
The aim of the study is to investigate how teachers’ experiences of practice-based research are expressed in the local school culture and how teachers’ participation in action research builds and shapes their teaching practice. Conditions that enable and constrain the integration of practice-based research into the school and the teaching practice are made visible in the study.

Method
Semi-structured interviews with 14 upper secondary school teachers that have participated in an action research project on literature teaching will be conducted. Data will also be collected from meetings and research circles, which the teachers attend after the ending of the project. The tentative conclusions will be presented at a seminar to which the teachers are invited in order to comment on the analysis.

Theoretical framing
The study is based on a sociocultural understanding of learning (Säljö, 2010). The theory of practice architecture (Kemmis, 2014) is used as a theoretical framework. This theory describes practices as consisting of sayings, doings and relating. The practice takes place in different spaces: the semantic room, the physical room and the social room, each room characterized by different arrangements: cultural-discursive, material-economic and social-political.

Expected conclusions
Preliminary results show that the teachers have started building a learning community with a common professional language. The collegial relations have deepened and their academic knowledge has improved. The literature teaching has developed and the teachers expect their experiences to form their future teaching. However, conditions surrounding the teaching practice, such as time and opportunities for collegial collaboration, can affect the possibilities for the acquired knowledge to be sustained and the positive changes to root in the local school culture.

References
Kemmis, S. (2014). Changing practices, changing education. Singapore: Springer.

Säljö, R. (2010). Lärande i praktiken: ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. (2. uppl.) Stockholm:
        Norstedts.


Bodil Johansson,
Umeå universitet

Systematic quality work in preschool

Purpose/goal
The purpose of the forthcoming study is to examine how teams of educators in the preschool talk about and describe their systematic quality work, the purpose is also to investigate which constructions of the systematic quality work are created in the teams' conversations and how these constructions hinder or promote the systematic quality work.

This I will try to do by seeking answers to the following questions:

  • How does the teams construct their quality work and what constructions become visible in the teams' conversations?
  • How does the teams' constructions promote or counteract the systematic quality work and what connections are there between the teams' constructions and the policy documents that exist.

Method
The approach is to generate empirical data through focus group interviews with four teams who work in preschool.

Theoretical framing
I intend to take my starting point in social constructivism, and I will be guided by Vivien Burrs (2015) thoughts on the subject. I will also use Haberma's (1996) thoughts on communicative action, Dean's (2010) concepts of governmentality and Fairclouhg's (2010) critical discourse analysis in my analysis work of my collected material.

Expected conclusion
Expected results of the study is that the teams create multiple competing constructions of systematic quality work which create both opportunities and obstacles in their work. The study will also show that the municipal and state control leave the teams with questions and demands that they find difficult to live up to.

Refrenses
Burr, V. (2015). Social constructionism. Third edition. London: Routledge.

Dean, M. (2010). Governmentality, power and rule in modern society. London: Sage.

Fairclouhg, N. (2010). Critikal Discours Analysis- The Critical Study of Language. London: Routledge.

Habermas, J. (1996). Kommunikativt handlande. Texter om språk, rationallitet och samhälle. Göteborg: Daidalos.


Helene Holm,
Umeå universitet

Seven-year-old pupils' perceptions of text conversations in groups

Learning to read and understand is a complex process. In reading research, both nationally and internationally, reading comprehension strategies and text conversations are well documented in literary texts with older pupils. In this study, however, the younger pupils' text conversations with factual texts from a socio-cultural perspective are in focus. Younger pupils need to be taught at an early stage how to interpret written text (Baker et.al.2013.) The teacher's reading aloud is a central way to introduce reading comprehension strategies into groups. The study deals with text conversations in factual texts when the researching teacher reads aloud with seven-year old pupils with Westlund's (2017) interpretation of the reciprocal teaching method. The purpose is to study how the pupils perceive the reading comprehension strategies for inner mental images, how they make inferences and how they individually use these strategies to their own knowledge. The focus is also on how a cooperative approach affects the students' reasoning in the text conversations. The study is a micro-ethnographic study in which interview and participant observation are used as a method. The text conversation is created with pupils at the beginning of their emerging reading comprehension. An expected result of the study is that the group should have a positive impact on the pupils' participation in the text conversations and that the cooperative way of working affects the communicative discourse. It is expected that the interviews and the participating observations will provide a deeper insight into how the pupils embrace and understand the reading comprehension teaching and how they individually develop their own learning. The study is relevant because there is no research on how younger pupils via the teacher's reading aloud of factual texts affect the creation of inner mental images. 

Referenser
Baker, S. K, L .E., Chard, D.J., Fien, H., Park, Y., & Otterstedt, J. (2013). An evaluation of an explicit read aloud intervention taught in whole- classroom formats in firts grade. Elementary School Journal, 113, 331-358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086 /668503

Westlund, B (2017). Aktiv läskraft. Att undervisa i lässtrategier för förståelse. Fk-årskurs 3 . Stockholm: Natur&Kultur.

[1] The senior level of secondary school